Sunday, 25 June 2017

Gardening Blogs UK Top 10

Last updated: 17/05/17.

1.The Blackberry Garden

Alison Levey, the author of The Blackberry Garden, has a rather philosophical take on gardening, in that she believes gardening teaches us patience and careful watchfulness. For Alison it is not just a hobby, it's a daily devotion. Even though she claims to be no expert, she does declare herself to be an obsessional gardener!



2.Veg Plotting

Veg Plotting is authored by Michelle Chapman who offers interesting stories about her garden and allotment as well as covering her travels to France, Little Venice, and around her home town of Chippenham, sharing beautiful photos of various g ardens across the country and beyond.

Want to learn more about this blog? Read our blogger spotlight with Michelle Chapman, author of Veg Plotting.

3.The Patient Gardener

Helen Johnstone is a plant obsessive who loves nothing more than gardening. Her garden is far from ordinary and in fact looks more like a horticultural paradise. Helen uses her blog to document the development of her garden, her visits to gardening festivals, as well as sharing beautiful pictures of nature. wp-image-103245" src="" alt="PatientGardner" width="760" height="417" srcset=" 760w, 300w, 017/05/PatientGardner-705x387.jpg 705w, 450w, 500w" sizes="(max-width: 760px) 100vw, 760px"/>


4.Growing Family

Catherine is a mum, wife, writer and a fan of wellies. She loves exploring, growing things, and uses her blog as a platform to share ideas, like what to plant in May, useful tools to use like grass trimmers, and cage plant protectors. However, Catherine's blog isn't just about gardening as she often shares tips for making the most of busy family life.

5.The Frustrated Gardener

Dan Cooper comes from a long line of gardeners. His grandparents were avid gardeners and imparted much of their wisdom to him. According to Dan, his childhood was defined by plants, experimenting with seeds and tending to his parents' garden, and by the age of fourteen he had acquired a greenhouse. Dan started his blog in 2012 and uses it to talk about his two tropical garden plots, one which is by the seaside in Broadstairs, Kent and another in Highg ate, London.



6.Vertical Veg

Vertical Veg was founded in 2010 by Mark Ridsdill Smith because he wanted to inspire and support others to grow food in the city. Challenging common preconceptions, Mark believes that you do not need a garden to grow food and that it is accessible to everyone. Using his extensive knowledge Mark's blog features informative posts like harvesting the bounty, how to grow chillies in containers and how to grow oyster mushrooms at home.

7.The Middle-Sized Garden

Alexandra Campbell wrote h er first novel on her father's typewriter. Since then she has gone on to write 9 novels and 10 non-fiction books. As the title would suggest, The Middle-Sized Garden fills a niche in the market by offering gardening tips to people who have middle-sized gardens. Drawing on her skills as a writer Alexandra uses her blog to cover everything from how to use a garden fertiliser, growing vegetables, and how to improve your pruning.


Enduring Gardener

8.The Enduring Gardener

Authored by Stephanie Donaldson, who was the Gardens Editor of Country Living Magazine for sixteen years, the Enduring Gardener is an essential blog for gardening enthusiasts. The blog feature s articles like 10 tips for using metals in the garden, how to make a succulent wall planter, and how to grow asparagus.

9.Two Thirsty Gardeners

Authored by Rich Hood and Nick Moyle, Two Thirsty Gardeners offers practical tips on gardening. The pair started working together in 2008 when they began making their own cider. Their blog is a vital resource to those seeking to find a solution to problems such as destructive weeds, unexplained yeast infections and slugs. They also offer creative advice such as how to produce fresh vegetable harvest and turning some of the fruits of their labour into alcohol.

Two Thirsty Gardeners


10.Real Men Sow

Praised by the Guardian and the Daily Mail, Jono Stevens blog, Real Men Sow, has won critical acclaim. Jono's journey into gardening started when he took on a redundant allotment plot and started using it as a space to grow his own food. Although he gave up his allotment some years ago he still concentrates on growing fruit and veg in his back garden.

The fundamentals of working with bloggers are the same as with traditional journalists at traditional media outlets: respect their schedules; take time to read their material to learn their interests; and only contact them if/when they want to be contacted.

Vuelio's blog ranking methodology takes into consideration social sharing, topic-related content and post frequency. Profiles of these gardening blogs and their authors can be found in theVuelioMedia Database.

Saturday, 24 June 2017

The Many Uses Of Flowers

Flowers are the most widely used species of plants in the world. Flowers are used as a symbol on certain events such as flowers used by the bride in wedding, flowers as a symbol to a girl's transition to womanhood on a debutante ball or the cotillion, as traditional flowers on Valentines Day.

Flowers are also used as a form of a gift on special occasions such as such as mother's day, Christmas, anniversaries, or even birthdays. Flowers can also be used as decorations for parties or gatherings.

The uses of Flowers are not only restricted as decorative and as symbol of celebrations or occasions, flowers can also produce a source of food. Flowers produce nectar, which the bees will extract to store as food on there hives, whereas human extract these nectar from the hives to produce honey, some flowers are also used for medical purposes or for shampoos.

Because of the flower's aVuq0ULck attractiveness and beauty many have decided to make a profit out of these flowers by selling those beautiful flowers and started their own flowers shops. Flower Express, one of the Philippines leading online flower shop; have built an online flower shop as a means for people to easily get hold to a large variety of flowers with just the use of a computer. Flowers Express's Flower gift Philippines and Gifts Philippines can provide a means of for people to choose from many variety of flower gift and gifts.

Flower gift Philippines is a branch of Flowers Express that specializes on selling different kinds of flowers. Flower gift Philippines sells many kinds of flowers local or foreign such as Alstroemerias, Carnations, Ecuadorian Roses, Gerberas, High-Style Collection, Lilies, Mixed Bouquets, Orchids, Spring Flowers, Tulips and many more. Flower gift Philippines can also provide their customers special arrangements for special occasions such as Anniversaries, Congratulations, Christmas, Get Well, Love & Romance, Sorry, Thank You, Welcome Home, and Valentines Special.

Gifts Philippines is a branch of Flowers Express that sells different kinds of gifts. Flowers Express doesn't only sell flowers to their customers but also some other gifts with Gifts Philippines. Gifts Philippines sells different kinds of gifts such as Chocolate, Fruit Basket, Gift Baskets, Men's Fragrances, Wines & liquors, and Women's Fragrances.

With Flowers Express's Flower gift Philippines and Gifts Philippines, customers are provided with services that lets them buy flowers and gifts with just the help of a computer and an internet. If you want more information on Flowers Express's Flower gift Philippines and Gifts Philippines then visit

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Volvos Polestar is now its own company focused on performance EVs

Volvo's Polestar is now its own company focused on performance EVs | TechCrunch

Volvo tuner Polestar, which the carmaker acquired in 2015 to build its own race-ready Volve cars, is now being set up as its own separate company within the Volvo group, with a new focus on performance electric vehicles. The new Polestar will have its own branding, distinct from Volvo's - though it'll still produce performance versions of Volvo cars in addition to its own models, Slashgear reports.

The new Polestar will build its own EVs, as mentioned, but the focus will still be on making these attractive to those in the market for high-performance vehicles. This could put the new Volvo subsidiary in direct competition with Tesla and its Model S, currently the easy first choice for those looking for a vehicle that has both an all-electric drivetrain and the ability to deliver track-topping speed, acceleration and handling.

We'll find out more about what exactly Polestar has planned for its own vehicles this fall, the company says, which could coincide with a bunch of announcements from Tesla, too, since that's ro ughly when it says it'll reveal its electric semi-truck plans. Musk has been dropping hints that an updated Roadster reveal is in the works, too, and noted that we should expect some surprises at the September truck event, so maybe fall will be a very interesting season for performance EV fans.

Featured Image: Scott Olson/Getty Images

Saturday, 17 June 2017

New York enjoys rare phenomenon of a corpse flower in bloom

Plant lovers in New York are enjoying a smelly treat with the rare bloom of a corpse flower at the New York Botanical Garden.

The botanical phenomenon, which typically lasts 24 to 36 hours, began on Thursday afternoon. It will likely be several Sprinkler System Installation more years before the flower blooms again, according to the Botanical Garden.

Famous for its highly pungent odor, which has been compared to the smell of rotting meat, the Amorphopallus Titanum, or corpse flower, has a highly unpredictable bloom cycle. Native to Sumatra in Indonesia, a specimen of the flower first bloomed in the Western Hemisphere at the New York Botanical Garden in 1937. A second specimen bloomed at the site in 1939.

The flower, which uses its stench to attract pollinators that feed on dead animals, has been carefully nurtured by Botanical Garden staff for almost a decade.

Horticulturalists noticed that the flower bud had formed July 15. On July 18 the flower was moved from the Botanical Garden's behind-the-scenes Nolen Greenhouses for Living Collections to the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, where it is now on display in the Palms of the World Gallery.

One of the largest flowers in the world, corpse flowers can grow to 12 feet in their natural habitat and 8 feet in cultivation. The Botanical Garden notes that, although the enormous plant resembles one giant flower, it comprises a fleshy central spike called a spadix that holds two rings of male and female flowers, wrapped by a frilly spathe - a modified leaf that looks like a petal.

"During bloom, the spadix self-heats to approximately human body temperature, which helps disseminate odor particles," explained the Botanical Garden, in a statement. "The spathe unfurls during the course of about 36 hours (full bloom) before withering and dying back."

The Botanical Garden is livestreaming the flower on a Corpse Flower Cam.

Plant lovers in the Windy City enjoyed Sprinkler System the rare phenomenon of a corpse flower in bloom when one of the Chicago Botanic Garden's eight corpse flowers, dubbed Alice, began blooming, much to the surprise of horticulturalists.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

House stays in GOP hands

Republicans will command the House for two more years as Donald Trump's astounding White House triumph helped them keep their record-sized majority nearly intact. "He just earned a mandate," said House Speaker Paul Ryan, who now faces working with a president with whom he had a turbulent relationship during the campaign.

Democrats had envisioned that voters repulsed by Trump comments about women and Hispanics could provide potentially big Election Day gains in suburban and ethnically diverse areas. Instead, the Democrats suffered a dispiriting day with just modest pickups, a maximum of nine, as the GOP swept to control of both ends of Pennsylvania Avenue.

That was well below the 30 seats Democrats needed to capture House control. Republicans currently hold a 247-188 majority, including three vacant seats, the most the GOP has had since their 270 in 1931.

"He turned politics on its head," Ryan, R-Wis., told reporters gathered Wednesday in his hometown of Janesvill e, Wisconsin. Ryan credited the president-elect with helping carry Republicans into Congress and promised to work "hand-in-hand" with him on a GOP agenda.

By Wednesday, Republicans had at least 238 seats - guaranteeing an extension of their six-year run of House control - and just six of their incumbents had lost. The GOP retained seats in Minnesota, New York, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Iowa and Wisconsin that Democrats had coveted.

House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., said the two parties "have a responsibility to come together and find common ground." In a written statement, she suggested cooperating with Trump on infrastructure projects and said she will "pray for his success."

It was initially unclear what impact the marginally smaller size of the GOP majority would have on Ryan, who'd angered some Republicans by refusing to campaign for Trump.

While one member of the hard-right House Freedom Caucus was defeated, several newly elected Republican s could bolster it. That would increase conservatives' leverage to demand their way on issues like curbing spending and government regulations.

In Florida, freshman GOP Rep. Carlos Curbelo won a race that underscored the limits of Trump's damage to Republicans. With around 7 in 10 of the Miami-area district's voters Hispanic, Democrats targeted it and the race became one of the country's most expensive with an $18 million price tag. But Curbelo distanced himself from his own party's nominee and prevailed.

Virginia freshman Rep. Barbara Comstock kept her seat in the well-heeled Washington, D.C., suburbs despite Democrats' attempts to lash her to Trump.

Democrats defeated two Florida GOP incumbents, but that seemed due to local circumstances.

Rep. John Mica, 73, a 12-term veteran from the Orlando area, was criticized by GOP strategists for a lackluster campaign and lost to Democrat Stephanie Murphy, a political neophyte. Democrat Charlie Crist, once the sta te's Republican governor, defeated Rep. David Jolly in a St. Petersburg district redrawn to favor Democrats.

Democrats also beat GOP Reps. Scott Garrett, a Freedom Caucus member from New Jersey's New York City suburbs; moderate Bob Dold from outside Chicago; Cresent Hardy of Nevada and New Hampshire's Frank Guinta.

Just one Democratic incumbent had lost by Wednesday, Nebraska's Brad Ashford.

Both parties' candidates and outside groups spent nearly $1.1 billion combined on House campaigns, shy of the $1.2 billion record in 2012, according to the Center for Responsive Politics, a nonpartisan research group. Republicans had only a slight financial edge.

Even with the Ryan-led House GOP's current formidable advantage, work stalled this year on spending bills after hitting objections from conservatives.

Moving into 2017, Congress faces a fresh round of budget legislation plus the need to renew the government's borrowing authority or face an economy-jarring federal default. Those are never easy to pass.

Ryan, 46, has said he wants to be speaker in the new Congress and has expressed confidence in doing so. But he is not immune to ire from the Freedom Caucus, which chased former Speaker John Boehner from Congress last year, and other Republicans upset over his frigid treatment of Trump.

Just a handful of disgruntled conservatives could possibly block Ryan from the 218 votes he'd need to retain his post. That would be an embarrassing setback for the GOP's 2012 vice presidential candidate, who may harbor White House aspirations.

9:10 p.m.ET Winners of competitive House races:

Arizona 1

Arizona 2

California 7

California 10

California 21

California 24

California 25

Colorado 3

Colorado 6

Florida 2 - Neal Dunn (R)

Florida 7

Florida 10 - Val Demings (D)

Florida 13 - Charlie Crist (D)

Florida 18 - Brian Mast (R)

Florida 26

Illinois 10

Indiana 9

Iowa 1

Iowa 3

Kansas 3

Maine 2

Michigan 1

Minnesota 2

Minnesota 3

Minnesota 7

Minnesota 8

Nebraska 2

Nebraska 3

Nevada 4

New Hampshire 1

New Jersey 5

New York 1

New York 21

New York 22

New York 23

New York 24

New York 25

Pennsylvania 8

Pennsylvania 16

Texas 23

Utah 4

Virginia 4

Virginia 5

5:11 p.m. ETHouse Democratic Leader Pelosi said at remarks at the Democratic National Committee that FBI Director Comey became "the leading Republican operative in the country" after sending his initial letter to Committee chairs.

She and DCCC Chair Ben Ray Lujan didn't sound optimistic about picking up a large number of House seats, much less retaking the House. She said they don't intend to lose a single incumbent seat.

-- CBS News' Walt Cronkite.

12:07 p.m. ET Paul Ryan is confident he'll remain speaker of the House next year.

Once Congress returns to Washington next week, House Republicans are slated to hold internal leadership elections -- but Speaker Paul Ryan seems confident his spot as the top House member is secure.

Ryan told a group of reporters Monday in Wisconsin that he is "not worried" about any change in his position.

"I feel very good where I am," Ryan said outside of a local Republican party office, according to Politico. "I've gotten such a great outpouring of support from members. They know I took the job as a sense of duty, that duty is not done, and I plan on continuing doing that duty."

On a Democratic conference call Monday reported by Politico, Democratic leaders blamed FBI Director James Comey for hurting their chances to take back the House.

"We would be in a better place [without the letter] and in the manner he did it," Pelosi reportedly said on the call. "It was out of line, but it helped us in one respect: it brought in small donors. The fact is we had a momentum going with Hillary's campaign."

She noted that in the closing days of the election that Republicans were "coming home anyway, but a couple of points nationwide has an impact on our races." Politico reported that House Democratic aides estimated that Democrats could, as a result of Comey's letter, lose up to 12 seats they'd hoped to pick up.

-- CBS News' Reena Flores

11:40 a.m. ETCBS News is monitoring 47 competitive House races. Bolded names are incumbents.




Arizona 1

Tom O'Halleran

Paul Babeu

Arizona 2

Matt Heinz

Martha McSally

California 10

Michael Eggman

Jeff Denham

California 21

Emilio Huerta

David Valadao

California 24

Salud Carbajal

Justin Fareed

California 25

Bryan Caforio

Steve Knight

California 7

Ami Bera

Scott Jones

Colorado 3

Gail Schwartz

Scott Tipton

Colorado 6

Morgan Carroll

Mike Coffman

Florida 10

Val Demings

Thuy Lowe

Florida 13

Charlie Crist

David Jolly

Florida 18

Randy Perkins

Brian Mast

Florida 2

Walter Dartland

Neal Dunn

Florida 26

Joe Garcia

Curt Curbelo

Florida 7

Stephanie Murphy

John Mica

Illinois 10

Brad Schneider

Robert Dold

Indiana 9

Shelli Yoder

Trey Hollingsworth

Iowa 1

Monica Vernon

Rod Blum

Iowa 3

Jim Mowrer

David Young

Kansas 3

Jay Sidie

Kevin Yoder

Maine 2

Emily Ann Cain

Bill Poliquin

Michigan 1

Lon Johnson

Jack Bergman

Minnesota 2

Angie Craig

Jason Lewis

Minnesota 3

Terri Bonoff

Erik Paulsen

Minnesota 7

Collin Peterson

Dave Hughes

Minnesota 8

Rick Nolan

Stewart Mills

Nebraska 2

Brad Ashford

Don Bacon

Nevada 3

Jacky Rosen

Danny Tark anian

Nevada 4

Ruben Kihuen

Cresent Hardy

New Hampshire 1

Carol Shea-Porter

Frank Guinta

New Jersey 5

Josh Gottheimer

Scott Garrett

New York 1

Anna Throne-Holst

Lee Zeldin

New York 21

Mike Derrick

Elise Stefanik

New York 22

Kim Myers

Claudia Tenney

New York 23

John Plumb

Tom Reed

New York 24

Colleen Deacon

John Katko

New York 25

Louise Slaughter

Mark Assini

New York 3

Tom Suozzi

Jack Martins

New York 19

Zephyr Teachout

John Faso

Pennsylvania 16

Christina Hartman

Lloyd Smucker

Pennsylvania 8

Steve Santarsiero

Brian Fitzpatrick

Texas 23

Pete Gallego

Will Hurd

Utah 4

Doug Owens

Mia Love

Virginia 10

LuAnn Bennett

Barbara Comstock

Virginia 4

Do nald McEachin

Mike Wade

Virginia 5

Jane Dittmar

Tom Garrett

Wisconsin 8

Tom Nelson

Mike Gallagher

-- CBS News' Rebecca Shabad

Friday, 16 June 2017

Lawns Gone Wild | HuffPost

The suburban lawn is extraordinarily expensive, wasteful, and bad for the environment. So why are Americans obsessed with it?2015-01-23-HaysEwing.jpg

Meadow lawn, Stony Point House, Charlottesville, VA. Hays+Ewing Design Studio (architecture) with Siteworks (landscape). Photograph by Prakash Patel.

Because environmental challenges are so complicated, potential solutions are rarely as simple as they seem.

For example, the market for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing rapidly, outpacing hybrids, although the supply is nowhere near the million EVs President Obama called for in his 2011 State of the Union Address (which might be why he didn't mention the topic this year). Fewer cars running on fossil fuels are a good thing, right? Actually, a new U niversity of Minnesota report finds that EVs can be worse for the environment than gas cars, depending on where they get their electricity. If the utility grid that charges them is powered by coal, EVs can produce nearly four times more deaths from air pollution. Because coal is the single largest source of grid energy in the US (nearly 40 percent), alternative cars could be exacerbating an already enormous problem.

Similarly, conventional wisdom suggests that more plants are always beneficial to the environment, since they produce oxygen and store carbon. But a new study just published in the Journal of Environmental Management shows that closely cropped lawns--the mainstay of suburbia--actually can produce more greenhouse gases than they absorb. The mowers, fertilizers, water, and other resources required to maintain the clean look of a hectare of grass can result in the equivalent emission s of an airplane flying more than halfway around the world. This confirms earlier research estimating that the emissions from lawn maintenance can be four times greater than the amount of carbon stored.

The total area of American lawns is approximately 50 thousand square miles, about the size of New York State. To keep it well watered takes about 200 gallons per person per day, and nearly a third of all residential water use goes toward landscaping, according to the EPA. All that watering, weeding, mowing, and fertilizing is enormously expensive: Americans reportedly spend $40 billion and 3 billion person-hours on lawn care every year. Why? The landscape equivalent of a crew cut, a grass lawn isn't that attractive; in fact, "lawn" stems from an Old French word originally meaning "barren land." So what accounts for our costly, wasteful obsession?

Like the McMansion, which vaguely echoes European manors, the lawn is a status symbol, meant to evoke aristocratic preceden t. Prior to mowing machines and mechanical watering, finely manicured lawns were expensive and labor intensive, the trappings of wealth. They became popular in northern Europe after the Middle Ages, especially in France during the 18th Century, and the gardens at Versailles introduced the thin swath of grass called tapis vert, "green carpet." The effect was intended to be unnatural, an abstraction that seemed to float above the ground plane.

Millions of Americans invest incredible amounts of time and money to conjure up the ghost of Louis XIV.

What are the alternatives? For one, we could replace ornamental grass with edible plants. In Cities and Natural Process (2004), Michael Hough calculates that a typical lawn needs three times more energy (and associated costs) than an alfalfa patch of the same size. In fact, the rate of energy to maintain a given area of residential lawn significantly exceeds the rate for commercial cornfields in the equivalent amount of soil. G arden lawns could become inevitable. Columbia University biologist Dickson Despommier estimates that to feed the expected population in 2050, we'll need about 2.1 billion acres of additional land--roughly the size of Brazil. Yet, today, more than 80 percent of arable land is already in use. If current farming practices continue, in a few decades there simply won't be enough land to feed everyone. We may be forced to begin growing corn in our front yards. For now, the benefits are clear: locally grown produce tastes fresher and saves huge amounts of energy, emissions, waste, transportation, and infrastructure maintenance.

If you don't want to eat your yard, you can just let it return to native meadow. Middlebury College has reduced the area of its regularly mown lawns by 20 acres (26% of the total), letting those spaces become wildflower meadows instead. The plan has cut emissions and costs, including 670 gallons of gas and 1,000 hours of annual labor, and significantly expanded the natural habitat and beauty on the campus. Native meadows, which have deeper roots, also are more drought resistant and produce less pollen than turf grass lawns. Yet, many residential communities not only discourage wild yards through peer pressure--they actually ban them. In Oak Park, Michigan, for example, it's a criminal misdemeanor not to cut your lawn regularly. They've outlawed the little house on the prairie.

Rich with native grasses, herbs, and shrubs, prairies are amazingly fertile and resilient, surviving long droughts a nd torrential rains and protecting soils from erosion. Once they covered the entire MidWest, from Montana to Michigan, all the way down into Texas. Today, only one percent of tallgrass prairie remains. Imagine if all 50 thousand square miles of residential lawns were converted to native meadows and prairie land, springing to life with edible plants that thrive in the local climate with little need for care. In addition to saving an astounding amount of energy, water, labor, and money, we could help resurrect the native state of the continent--right in our front yards.

Architect Lance Hosey is Chief Sustainability Officer with the global design leader RTKL. His latest book, The Shape of Green: Aesthetics, Ecology, and Design (2012), has been Amazon's #1 bestseller for sustainable design.

Wake up to the day's most important news. -hosey/lawns-gone-wild_b_6535050.html

Thursday, 15 June 2017

This $250 wifi sprinkler can cut lawn water use 30%

Rachio, a Denver-based start-up, has been selling a "smart sprinkler" for the last year. The device takes the place of a traditional control box on an automated home sprinkler system. It hooks the system up to the Internet -- meaning that you can control it from a smartphone.

It also means the sprinkler system can now check the weather. If it's going to rain or has rained recently, the system holds off on watering. It also automatically adjusts the watering times for each season. And it waters intermittently to allow for maximum absorption -- which also encourages the grass to grow deeper roots and become more drought-resistant. These things alone can cut lawn water use by 30%, according to the company -- no small amount when at least eight Western states are in extreme drought, or worse.

Related: Can these gates protect NYC from the next flood?

The company w as formed after Chris Klein and Franz Garsombke -- two software engineers working for a real estate intelligence firm -- went through the last drought in Colorado in 2012. When fall came and the dryness subsided, the two noticed that sprinklers in the area were still running, even though it was raining.

"We figured there had to be a better way," said Klein.

So the pair started writing code and entered a contest run by the Colorado Innovation Network -- a consortium of businesses, governments and universities that promotes economic development in the state. They won $50,000, quit their jobs, and began building the company. Now they have 18 employees, and sales are on track to quadruple from last year, although Klein would not disclose revenue numbers or units sold.

RachioThe hardware mounts in your home, the software is accessible online.

The device itself looks like a router, and Klein said most people can install it in 20 minutes. (If you still can't, most likely a gardener or electrician can.)

The entire thing -- plastic, electronics, packaging -- is made in Colorado. Klein said it would probably be cheaper to make it abroad, but the company is convinced that U.S. manufacturing costs will fall as more companies decide to build stuff here -- and they want to be part of the force driving that change.

It's compatible with Nest and other smart home systems, and many areas experiencing drought -- including Los Angeles, Fresno and the Santa Clara Valley -- subsidize the $250 retail price, said Klein.

Of course California is the most populous state seeing a historic drought, and Klei n said roughly a third of his sales are in that state, up from about a quarter last year.

Rachio isn't the only company to make these devices -- competitors include Blossom and Skydrop.

CNNMoney (New York) First published May 13, 2015: 6:38 AM ET


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Electrician (disambiguation).

An electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure.[1] Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes, and other mobile platforms, as well as data and cable.


1 Terminology

2 Training and regulation of trade

2.1 Australia

2.2 Canada

2.3 United Kingdom

2.4 United States

2.4.1 Reciprocity

3 Tools

4 Safety

5 Working conditions

6 Trade organizations

6.1 Australia

6.2 North America

6.3 England/Ireland

7 Auto electrician

8 See also

9 References

10 External links


Electricians were originally people who demonstrated or studied the principles of electricity, often electrostatic generators of one form or another.[2]

In the United States, electricians are divided into two primary categories: linemen, who work on electric utility company distribution systems at higher voltages, and wiremen, who work with the lower voltages utilized inside buildings. Wiremen are generally trained in one of five primary specialties: commercial, residential , light industrial, industrial, and low-voltage wiring, more commonly known as Voice-Data-Video, or VDV. Other sub-specialties such as control wiring and fire-alarm may be performed by specialists trained in the devices being installed, or by inside wiremen.

Electricians are trained to one of three levels: Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Electrician. In the US and Canada, apprentices work and receive a reduced compensation while learning their trade. They generally take several hundred hours of classroom instruction and are contracted to follow apprenticeship standards for a period of between three and six years, during which time they are paid as a percentage of the Journeyman's pay. Journeymen are electricians who have completed their Apprenticeship and who have been found by the local, State, or National licensing body to be competent in the electrical trade. Master Electricians have performed well in the trade for a period of time, often seven to ten years, and have pa ssed an exam to demonstrate superior knowledge of the National Electrical Code, or NEC.

Service electricians are tasked to respond to requests for isolated repairs and upgrades. They have skills troubleshooting wiring problems, installing wiring in existing buildings, and making repairs. Construction electricians primarily focus on larger projects, such as installing all new electrical system for an entire building, or upgrading an entire floor of an office building as part of a remodeling process. Other specialty areas are marine electricians, research electricians and hospital electricians. "Electrician" is also used as the name of a role in stagecraft, where electricians are tasked primarily with hanging, focusing, and operating stage lighting. In this context, the Master Electrician is the show's chief electrician. Although theater electricians routinely perform electrical work on stage lighting instruments and equipment, they are not part of the electrical trade and have a different set of skills and qualifications from the electricians that work on building wiring.

In the film industry and on a television crew the head electrician is referred to as a Gaffer.

Electrical contractors are businesses that employ electricians to design, install, and maintain electrical systems. Contractors are responsible for generating bids for new jobs, hiring tradespeople for the job, providing material to electricians in a timely manner, and communicating with architects, electrical and building engineers, and the customer to plan and complete the finished product.

Training and regulation of trade

Electrician installing new meter socket on the side of a house.

Many jurisdictions have regulatory restrictions concerning electrical work for safety reasons due to the many hazards of working with electricity. Such requirements may be testing, registration or licensing. Licensing requirements vary between jurisdictions.


An electrician's license entitles the holder to carry out all types of electrical installation work in Australia without supervision. However, to contract, or offer to contract, to carry out electrical installation work, a licensed electrician must also be registered as an electrical contractor. Under Australian law, electrical work that involves fixed wiring is strictly regulated and must almost always be performed by a licensed electrician or electrical contractor.[3] A local electrician can handle a range of work including air conditioning, data, and structured cabling systems, home automation & theatre, LAN, WAN and VPN data solutions, light fittings and installation, phone points, power points, safety inspections and reports, safety switches, smoke alarm installation, inspection and certification and testing and tagging of electrical appliances.

Electrical licensing in Australia is regulated by the individual states. In Western Australia the Department of Commerce tracks licensee's and allows the public to search for individually named/licensed Electricians.[4]

Currently in Victoria the apprenticeship last for four years, during three of those years the apprentice attends trade school in either a block release of o ne week each month or one day each week. At the end of the apprenticeship the apprentice is required to pass three examinations, one of which is theory based with the other two practically based. Upon successful completion of these exams, providing all other components of the apprenticeship are satisfactory, the apprentice is granted an A Class licence on application to Energy Safe Victoria (ESV).

An A Class electrician may perform work unsupervised but is unable to work for profit or gain without having the further qualifications necessary to become a Registered Electrical Contractor (REC) or being in the employment of a person holding REC status. However, some exemptions do exist.[5]

In most cases a certificate of electrical safety must be submitted to the relevant body after any electrical works are performed.

Safety equipment used and worn by electricians in Australia (including insulated rubber gloves and mats) needs to be tested regularly to ensure it is s till protecting the worker. Because of the high risk involved in this trade, this testing needs performed regularly and regulations vary according to state. Industry best practice is the Queensland Electrical Safety Act 2002, and requires six-monthly testing.


A utility electrician/lineman does maintenance on a utility pole.

Training of electricians follows an apprenticeship model, taking four or five years to progress to fully qualified journeyman level.[6] Typical apprenticeship programs consists of 80- 90% hands-on work under the supervision of journeymen and 10-20% classroom training.[7] Training and licensing of electricians is regulated by each province, however professional licenses are valid throughout Canada under Agreement on Internal Trade. An endorsement under the Red Seal Program provides additional competency assurance to industry standards.[8] In order for individuals to become a licensed electricians, they need to have 9000 hours of practical, on the job training. They also need to attend school for 4 terms and pass a provincial exam. This training enables them to become journeyman electricians. Furthermore, in British Columbia, an individual can go a step beyond that and become a "FSR", or field safety representative. This credential gives the ability to become a licensed electrical contractor and to pull permits. Notwithstanding this, some Canadian provinces only grant "permit pulling privileges" to current Master Electricians, that is, a journeyman who has been eng aged in the industry for three (3) years AND has passed the Master's examination (i.e. Alberta). The various levels of field safety representatives are A,B and C. The only difference between each class is that they are able to do increasingly higher voltage and current work.

United Kingdom

Competency standards in the UK are defined by the Sector Skills council Summit Skills. Qualifications certificated by awarding organisations such as City and Guilds and EAL are based on these National Occupational Standards. Once qualified and demonstrating the required level of competence an Electrician can register with the JIB (Joint industry Board) for an Electrotechnical Certification Scheme (ECS) card. Electrical competence is required at Level 3 to practice as an electrician in the UK. The electrical industry is one of the few that require a trade test to be achieved prior to being fully qualified. This is known as the AM2.

Electricians can demonstrate further competenc e by studying further qualifications in Design and Verification of Electrical Installations or in the Test and Inspection of Electrical Installations. These qualifications can be listed on the reverse of the JIB card.

The Electricity at Work Regulations are the statutory document that covers electrical installations. Further information is provided in the non-statutory document BS7671 - Requirements for Electrical Installations otherwise known as the Wiring Regulations currently (2013) in their 17th Edition. Installations that comply with BS7671 are deemed to have met the EAWR. Electrical Installation in domestic properties is governed by Part P of the Building Regulations and electricians have to register certain aspects of their work in domestic properties with the local building control authority.

With the exception of the work described in Part P of the Building Regulations there are no laws that prevent anyone from carrying out electrical work in the UK. A possibl e result of this is that during 2010/11 and in 2011/12 there were 3,822 domestic electrical fires in Great Britain, resulting in 14 deaths. Organisations such as the Electrical Safety Council are working hard to educate the public not to use electricians who are not fully qualified or competent and to check the ElectricSafe register to ensure an Electrician has been deemed competent.

United States

Although many electricians work for private contractors, many electricians get their start in the military.

The United States does not offer nationwide licensing and ele ctrical licenses are issued by individual states. There are variations in licensing requirements, however, all states recognize three basic skill categories: level electricians. Journeyman electricians can work unsupervised provided that they work according to a master's direction. Generally, states do not offer journeyman permits, and journeyman electricians and other apprentices can only work under permits issued to a master. Apprentices may not work without direct supervision.[9]

Before electricians can work unsupervised, they are usually required to serve an apprenticeship lasting from 3 to 5 years under the general supervision of a Master Electrician and usually the direct supervision of a Journeyman Electrician.[9] Schooling in electrical theory and electrical building codes is required to complete the apprenticeship program. Many apprenticeship programs provide a salary to the apprentice during training. A Journeyman electrician is a classification of licensing granted to those who have met the experience requirements for on the job training (usually 4000 to 6000 hours) and classroom hours (about 144 hours). Requirements include completion of two to six years of apprenticeship training, and passing a licensing exam.[10][11]


An electrician's license is valid for work in the state where the license was issued. In addition, many states recognize licenses from other states, sometimes called interstate reciprocity participation, although there can be conditions imposed. For example, California reciprocates with Arizona, Nevada, and Utah on the condition that licenses are in good standing and have been held at the other state for five years.[12] Nevada reciprocates with Arizona, California, and Utah.[13] Maine reciprocates with New Hampshire and Vermont at the master level, and the state reciprocates with New Hampshire, North Dakota, Idaho, Oregon, Vermont, and Wyoming at the journeyman level.[14]


Electrici ans use a range of hand and power tools and instruments.

Two of the tools commonly used by electricians. The fish tape is used to pull conductors through conduits, or sometimes to pull conductors through hollow walls. The conduit bender is used to make accurate bends and offsets in electrical conduit.

Some of the more common tools are:

Conduit Bender: Bender used to bend various types of Electrical Conduit. These come in many variations including hand, electrical, and hydraulic powered.

Non-Contact Voltage Testers

Lineman's Pliers: Heavy-duty pliers for general use in cutting, bending, crimping and pulling wire.

Diago nal Pliers (also known as side cutters or Dikes): Pliers consisting of cutting blades for use on smaller gauge wires, but sometimes also used as a gripping tool for removal of nails and staples.

Needle-Nose Pliers: Pliers with a long, tapered gripping nose of various size, with or without cutters, generally smaller and for finer work (including very small tools used in electronics wiring).

Wire Strippers: Plier-like tool available in many sizes and designs featuring special blades to cut and strip wire insulation while leaving the conductor wire intact and without nicks. Some wire strippers include cable strippers among their multiple functions, for removing the outer cable jacket.

Cable Cutters: Highly leveraged pliers for cutting larger cable.

Armored Cable Cutters: Commonly referred to by the trademark 'Roto-Split' , is a tool used to cut the metal sleeve on MC (Metal Clad) cable.

Multimeter: An instrument for electrical measurement with multipl e functions. It is available as analog or digital display. Common features include: voltage, resistance, and current. Some models offer additional functions.

Unibit or Step-Bit: A metal-cutting drill bit with stepped-diameter cutting edges to enable convenient drilling holes in preset increments in stamped/rolled metal up to about 1.6mm (1/16 inch) thick. Commonly used to create custom knock-outs in a breaker panel or junction box.

Cord, Rope or Fish Tape. Used to manipulate cables and wires through cavities. The fishing tool is pushed, dropped, or shot into the installed raceway, stud-bay or joist-bay of a finished wall or in a floor or ceiling. Then the wire or cable is attached and pulled back.

Crimping Tools: Used to apply terminals or splices. These may be hand or hydraulic powered. Some hand tools have ratchets to insure proper pressure. Hydraulic units achieve cold welding, even for aluminum cable.

Insulation Resistance Tester: Commonly referred to as a Megger, these testers apply several hundred to several thousand volts to cables and equipment to determine the insulation resistance value.

Knockout Punch: For punching holes into boxes, panels, switchgear, etc. for inserting cable & pipe connectors.

GFI/GFCI Testers: Used to test the functionality of Ground-Fault Interrupting receptacles.

Voltmeter: An electrician's tool used to measure electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.

Other general-use tools include screwdrivers, hammers, reciprocating saws, drywall saws, flashlights, chisels, tongue and groove pliers (Commonly referred to as 'Channellock' pliers, a famous manufacturer of this tool) and drills.


See also: Occupational safety and health

In addition to the workplace hazards generally faced by industrial workers, electricians are also particularly exposed to injury by electricity. An electrician may experience electric shock due to direct contact with energized circuit conductors or due to stray voltage caused by faults in a system. An electric arc exposes eyes and skin to hazardous amounts of heat and light. Faulty switchgear may cause an arc flash incident with a resultant blast. Electricians are trained to work safely and take many measures to minimize the danger of injury. Lockout and tagout procedures are Best Electrician Service used to make sure that circuits are proven to be de-energized before work is done. Limits of approach to energized equipment protect against arc flash exposure; specially designed flash-resistant clothing provides additional protection; grounding (earthing) clamps and chains are used on line conductors to provide a visible assurance that a conductor is de-energized. Personal protective equipment provides electrical insulation as well as protection from mechanical impact; gloves have insulating rubber liners, and work boots and hard hats are specially rated to provide protection from shock. If a system cannot be de-energized, insulated tools are used; even high-voltage transmission lines can be repaired while energized, when necessary.[15]

Electrical workers, which includes electricians, accounted for 34% of total electrocutions of construction trades workers in the United States between 1992-2003.[16]

Working conditions

Working conditions for electricians vary by specialization. Generally an electrician's work is physically demanding such as climbing ladders and lifting tools and supplies. Occasionally an electrician must work in a cramped space or on scaffolding, and may frequently be bending, squatting or kneeling, to make connections in awkward locations. Construction electricians may spend much of their days in outdoor or semi-outdoor loud and dirty work sites. Industrial electricians may be exposed to the heat, dust, and noise of an industrial plant. Power systems electricia ns may be called to work in all kinds of adverse weather to make emergency repairs.

Trade organizations

Some electricians are union members and work under their union's policies.


Electricians can choose to be represented by the Electrical Trade Union (ETU). Electrical Contractors can be represented by the National Electrical & Communications Association or Master Electricians Australia.

North America

Some electricians are union members. Some examples of electricians' unions include the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Canadian Union of Public Employees, and the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers.

The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers provides its own apprenticeships through its National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee and the National Electrical Contractors Association. Many merit shop training and apprenticeship programs also exist, including those offered by such as trade associations as Associated Builders and Contractors and Independent Electrical Contractors. These organizations provide comprehensive training, in accordance with U.S. Department of Labor regulations.


In England, electricians are represented by several unions including Unite the Union

In the Republic of Ireland there are two self-regulation/self certification bodies RECI Register of Electrical Contractors of Ireland and ECSSA.

Auto electrician

An auto electrician is a tradesman specializing in electrical wiring of motor vehicles. Auto electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical components. Auto electricians specialize in cars and commercial vehicles.

See also

Lineman (Technician)

Gaffer (Term used in film and television)

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

List of electricians, notab le individuals who have worked as electricians


^ Roger Jones (2004). Electrician. Trotman Publishing. ISBN0-85660-997-8.

^ Shock and Awe: The Electrician Service Story of Electricity- Jim Al-Khalili

^ Tester, Ross (2008-06-05). "DIY Electrical Work: Are Aussies DUMBER than Kiwis?". Silicon Chip Online. Retrieved 2012-07-20.




^ Government of Canada

^ a b Hering, Bob. "Differences Between a Journeyman & a Master Electrician". Houston Chronicle. Demand Media. Retrieved 10 April 2013.

^ "Glossary of Electrical Terms". Nashville Electrician | Mister Sparky Electric. Retrieved 2015-10-20.

^ "What Is a Journeyman Electrician?". Retrieved 2017-01-29.


^ State of NV

^ State of ME

^ John Cadick et al, Electrical Safety Handbook Third Edition, Mc Graw Hill 2005, ISBN 0-07-145772-0

^ Michael McCann, Why Are So Many Construction Workers Being Electrocuted?, retrieved 2010 July 27

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Electricians.

Occupational Outlook Handbook

Retrieved from ""

Toro's Award-Winning Drip Irrigation Recycling Service Expands

EL CAJON, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Toro is pleased to announce that, effectively immediately, its

award-winning drip irrigation recycling service will now offer expanded

service capabilities in California's Central Coast Region. The service

is a result of Toro's ongoing commitment to help farmers maximize

production with efficient, sustainable drip irrigation practices,

including the recycling of spent drip irrigation tapes and driplines.

The service is offered in partnership with Revolution Plastics, a

national leader in agricultural plastic recycling with operations in

Arkansas, Wisconsin and Texas, and now a new facility in California.

"Toro knows that drip irrigation is innovative technology that helps

farmers produce more with fewer resources, but also recognizes that at

the end of its lifecycle, drip irrigation becomes plastic that needs to

be recycled," says Phil Burkart, vice president of Irrigation and

Lighting Businesses at The Toro Company. "For this reason, we have

partnered with Revolution Plastics to offer superior, sustainable

recycling services to drip irrigators nationwide." Revolution Plastics

recently expanded service in California to include improved facilities

in Ballico, and a new location in Camarillo to better serve California's

coastal growers.

Jeff Dosio, from Modesto, California, and co-owner of Pacific

Agri-Lands, grows 12,000 acres of wine grapes, and has used the service

for over five years. "I've been pleased with the service - plus it's

free! Otherwise I'd have to pay to take my old vineyard hose or dripline

to the dump."

Dave Bricker of Victoria Island Farms of Holt, California, routinely

recycles drip tape from their 6,000 acres of asparagus, tomatoes and

other crops. "Toro referred me to Revolution Plastics when my other

recycler was full. They showed up the next day, exactly when they said

they would, and left the site neat and clean, which is very important to

us. I'm definitely calling Revolution Plastics next time."

In honor of the recycling service's growing presence, Toro is giving

away free product during its "Free Pallet of Drip Tape" promotion. To

qualify for a free pallet of Toro drip tape, growers must recycle 25,000

pounds of drip tape or dripline (of any brand) with Toro's Drip

Irrigation Recycling Service, operated by Revolution Plastics, after

June 1, 2017 and buy a truckload of 480 reels of Toro drip tape from an
< br>authorized Toro dealer. This introductory offer is available until

October 31, 2017, has no limits to quantity per farmer, but may not be

combined with any other offer.

"This offer is too good to refuse, considering many farmers pay to

dispose of used drip Sprinkler System Installation Denton tape and driplines. Revolution Plastic's

state-of-the-art grapple hook trucks make field prep easy for the

farmer, and pickup turnaround time fast," says Inge Bisconer, technical

marketing and sales manager for Toro.

Toro's Drip Irrigation Recycling Service recently gained nationwide

recognition at the Irrigation Association's (

annual convention in Las Vegas, where it won the 2016 New Product

Contest - Specialty Agriculture. The service's Ag Plastic Pickup mobile

application impressed judges, as did its unique, sustainable business


"The app is ridesharing for ag plastic - it really is that easy," says

Louis Vasquez, director of corporate development, Revolution Plastics.

Farmers use the mobile app to conveniently schedule their plastic pickup

service in a few easy steps. Simply upload a photo of the plastic to Sprinkler Installation Denton be

recycled, drop a pin on the location, and then press submit.

Revolution Plastics uses the recycled plastic materials to make Ecologo

plastic can liners and other agriculture and construction sheeting

rather than shipping recycled resins overseas. "This creates local jobs,

reduces the need for virgin resins and has resulted in a sustainable

business that has provided superior agricultural recycling services for

over 20 years," says Vasquez.

About The Toro Company

The Toro Company (NYSE: TTC) i s a

leading worldwide provider of innovative solutions for the outdoor

environment including turf, snow and ground engaging equipment, and

irrigation and outdoor lighting solutions. With sales of $2.4 billion in

fiscal 2016, Toro's global presence extends to more than 90 countries.

Through constant innovation and caring relationships built on trust and

integrity, Toro and its family of brands have built a legacy of

excellence by helping customers care for golf courses, landscapes,

sports fields, public green spaces, commercial and residential

properties and agricultural fields. For more information, visit

Wednesday, 14 June 2017

10 Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Landscape Designer

If you're considering working with a landscape designer, finding the right fit -- and avoiding surprises midway through the project -- is largely about knowing which questions to ask upfront and being familiar with the range of services these professionals provide.

We reached out to four seasoned landscape professionals -- Peter Reader of Peter Reader Landscapes in London, Beth Mullins of Growsgreen Landscape Design in San Francisco, John Algozzini of K&D Landscape Management in Chicago and June Scott of June Scott Design in Southern California -- to get the inside scoop on the range of services available and the 10 essential questions potential clients should ask before hiring a professional for the job.

First, get your ducks in a row. Before reaching out to a professional, write a wish list for your garden remodel, establish your priorities and budget, and decide which parts of the process you'd like to hire a pro for help. With this on paper, you'll have a clear sens e of what you're looking for in a designer before you begin to contact professionals.

10 Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Landscape Designer

1. What services do you offer? First and foremost, determine what services a landscape designer offers to see if he or she is the right person for your project."The best question a potential client can ask is: 'Are you experienced with the scope of work we want, and can you design and manage it?'" Algozzini says.

Generally speaking, landscape designers fall into one of three categories, depending on the services they offer:

Design only. Some designers specialize only in the design process. This typically includes a site analysis and discussion of a client's needs, a preliminary design, revisions based on your feedback, and a final detailed master plan for your garden. This detailed planting plan and construction document is then handed over to you (or a landscape contractor of your choosing) to take it from there.

Design-build. Others offer the design service described above, as well as overseeing plant purchase and all installation. Contractors are needed for permitting and hardscape installation -- sometimes the landscape designer is also a registered contractor, and other times they have landscape contractors on their team or ones to recommend and oversee.

RELATED: Choose From the Best Design-Build Firms

Full service -- design-build and maintenance program. For the highest-touch service, some landscape designers will offer all the above, plus oversee ongoing maintenance of the garden.

2. Can I see examples of your past work? "Consider the style of the designer in relation to the garden you want," Reader says. "If you want a modern, clean-lined city garden, have they designed any before? Or if you are looking for a cottage-style garden, do they have the plant knowledge to deliver?"

Alternatively, if a designer's portfolio doesn't include the particular style you're looking for, check out his or her credentials for evidence of the training to make the vision of your garden a reality. Degrees from accredited landscape design colleges and memberships in professional organizations are both good indicators.

3. Do you offer garden consultations? Some landscape designers will offer one- to two-hour garden consultations. During this meeting, a designer will typically come over to your property, join you for a walk around the garden, listen to what you'd like to accomplish with your remodel and begin to bounce some i deas around for the design.

This is a great opportunity for you to determine whether you have a fit with the designer, and for the designer to see if he or she fits with you as a client. "It is important for a client to determine what role they want to play," Mullins says. "Are they interested in a collaboration, [want to] defer completely to the designer or have a clear idea for their garden and just want someone to implement it?"

Don't expect an initial consult to be free of charge -- it is, after all, two hours of a professional's time -- though some designers will put the consult fee toward the cost of the design if you end up hiring them.

4. What ideas do you have for our garden? After you've shared your wish list and budget with the designer, and the designer has had a chance to view your property, ask what vision the designer has for your landscape. D esigners have different mediums of presenting their ideas for your landscape, ranging from a collage-style mood board with inspiration images for plants and hardscape materials to a two-dimensional, to-scale drawing created with a CAD program or by hand.

This is the time to speak up about what you like and dislike in the design or if you see anything that's missing from your wish list -- for example, more space for tool storage, room to grow vegetables or an area with shade. Following this meeting, a designer will draw up a revised design drawing based Sprinkler System on your feedback.

5. What is your process? A designer's process depends on the services he or she offers (see question 1). Get to know the process -- and whether you or the designer is responsible for overseeing each step -- from the beginning so that you'll know what to expect once the project is underway. If you're hiring a designer who speciali zes in design only, ask yourself whether you have the time or experience necessary to oversee the project installation or if the designer has contractors to recommend.

As a responsible client, you also need to be honest with a landscape designer regarding your budget for the project. "Knowing a budget beforehand is crucial," Mullins says. "It doesn't mean that a designer needs to spend the budget but dictates what [he or she] can realistically design for." If a look you like is over your budget, designers often have creative ways to stretch your budget and give you the best garden for your space.

6. What is the estimated cost? Clear communication regarding the estimated cost of the project and your budget is essential. Ask your designer for a range of cost for both the design and the installation. Most installation estimates are drawn up by a contractor based on the cost per square foot of installing areas of hardscape outlined on the plan for the yard.

Scott sh ares another key question to ask your designer: "How are changes in scope handled during the design and installation process?" Given that unanticipated design changes often come up midproject, it's important to be clear on whether a designer will charge additional fees for the time it takes to change the design plan or installation.

7. Are there any ways to reduce cost? Pathways, patios, retaining walls and decks are generally more expensive than planted garden areas, so the more hardscape there is in the design, the more it's likely going to cost to install. Plus, the materials used for hardscape can vary widely for both the product and the installation.

It's best to have a conversation with a designer when you are discussing the initial plan about ways to reduce the cost of the landscape to stay on budget. The designer will have ideas about where you can save money without compromising style, and what elements are worth a splurge.

8. How long will installation take? The time it takes to design and install a landscape depends on a number of factors: size and scope of the project, availability of contractors and other installation specialists, ordering and delivery times for materials and plants, dry weather for laying hardscape, and unexpected setbacks during installation. Instead of asking a landscape designer to have the installation done by a certain date, ask for an estimated range for the project to be completed.

As eager as you may be to enjoy your new landscape, keep in mind that skilled installation of hardscape and careful planting takes time. "While landscaping on TV is inspirational and great entertainment, the actual site work rarely has a team of 24 [people] working around the clock," Algozzini says. "High-quality work is both art and science, and takes time to install."

RELATED: How to Work With a Landscape Professional

9. When will the garden grow in? The time it takes for a garden to grow in depends on the scope of the design, what types of plants are proposed and how mature the plants are when they're planted. A smaller area with ornamental grasses and perennials can grow in within a single season, but larger and more complex designs with trees and large shrubs can take years to reach maturity. Ask your designer which plants make sense to splurge for semimature specimens (like focal-point trees or shrubs needed for screening) and which plants can be purchased small and fill in quickly (like most ground covers, vegetables and ornamental grasses).

10. How much maintenance will it take to keep the garden looking good? Different styles of gardens and plants require very different levels of care. Be upfront with your landscape designer about how much maintenance you are willing to commit -- either your own time or that of a hired gardener -- going forward. Once you've invested in hiring a landscape designer and install ing a garden, you'll want to keep your landscape alive and flourishing for years to come. Ask your landscape designer if he or she has recommended maintenance gardeners or specialists to take care of the garden going forward.

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arbitrating hundreds of cases in i ndustries that deliver goods and

services as varied as appliances, fast food, apparel, financial

services, petroleum, motor vehicles, heavy equipment, furniture, office

equipment and alcoholic beverages. We have obtained numerous dismissals,

summary judgments, trial verdicts and appellate decisions in favor of

our clients.


(816) 983-8000

(816) 983-8080 FAX

4801 Main Street, Kansas City, MO 64112



CONTACT: Donald A. Culp, Partner; John Moore, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The Franchise and Distribution Law Practice Group

represents clients in all aspects of the structure, implementation,

maintenance and financing of franchise and distribution businesses.


(416) 863-2400

(416) 863-2653 FAX

Commerce Court West, #2800, 199 Bay Street, Toronto, ON M5L 1A9




CONTACT: Peter Viitre, Partner; Chris Hale, Partner

Calgary Office

855-2nd Street S.W., Suite 3500, Bankers Hall East Tower, Calgary,

AB T2P 4J8 Canada

Vancouver Office

595 Burrard Street, Suite 2600, Three Bentall Centre, Vancouver, BC

V7X 1L3 Canada

Montreal Office

600 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Suite 2200 Montreal, Quebec H3A


Ottawa Office

45 O'Connor Street, Suite 2000, World Exchange Plaza, Ottawa,

ON K1P 1A4



(313) 259-7777

1901 St . Antoine Street, 6th Floor at Ford Field, Detroit, MI 48226



CONTACT: Thomas J. Tallerico, Partner; Dennis J. Levasseur, Partner

Troy Office

201 W. Big Beaver Road, Suite 500, Troy, MI 48084

Ann Arbor Office

110 Miller, Suite 300, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Cheboygan Office

229 Court Street, P.O. Box 405, Cheboygan, MI 49721

TYPE OF BUSINESS: 130-attorney business law firm serving clients in

Michigan, throughout the U.S. and internationally. We can assist

franchisors and franchisees in commercial litigation and alternative

dispute resolution, intellectual property matters including patent and

copyright protection, labor and employment law, corporate and securities

law, regulatory compliance, mergers, acquisitions and divestitures,

environmental law, bankruptcy, construction law, real property law and

tax law matters.


(310) 576-2132

(310) 576-2200 FAX

120 Broadway, Suite 300, Santa Monica, CA 90401-2386



CONTACT: Kenneth R. Costello, Partner; Jon Solish, Partner

Chicago Office

225 West Washington, Suite 260, Chicago, IL 60606-3418

Houston Office

1401 McKinney Street, #2700, Houston, TX 77010

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Bryan Cave, LLP is an 800 lawyer, international

law firm whose franchise lawyers are globally recognized authorities,

frequent speakers and authors, including a leading 3-volume franchise

treatise, who serve on numerous industry editorial and advisory boards,

and are commentators for franchise and major business news media. Our

clients range from start-up to Global 50 domestic and international

franchising and distribution businesses, in a broad range of industries,

who require sophisticated and complex legal support, including antitrust

counseling; regulatory compliance; litigation and arbitration; mergers

and acquisitions; intellectual property protection, and more.


(305) 347-4080

(305) 347-4089 FAX

Bank of America Tower, 34th Floor, 100 SE Second Street, Miami, FL




CONTACT: Leslie Smith-Porter, Attorney

Pittsburgh Office

(412) 562-8957

(412) 562-1041 FAX

One Oxford Center, 401 Grant Street, Pit tsburgh, PA 15219-1410

CONTACT: John R. Previs

Washington, DC Office

(202) 833-7099 FAX

1700 K Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20006-3807

Princeton Office

(609) 520-0360 FAX

700 Alexander Park, Sutie 300, Princeton, NJ 08540-6347


CONTACT: Frank B. Harrington, Associate

Tampa Office

(813) 222-8189 FAX

401 East Jackson Street, Suite 2500, Tampa, FL 33602-5236


CONTACT: Peter M. Cardillo, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The lawyers in Buchanan's Franchise and

Distribution Group provide clients with comprehensive knowledge in

multiple legal disciplines. Encompassing the areas of corporate finance,

federal and state regulation compliance, intellectual prop erty,

litigation, labor and employment, government contracts, tax and real

estate, Buchanan's Franchise and Distribution Practice Group is a

cross-section of attorneys who are recognized leaders in their fields.

With 16 offices across the nation and access to Buchanan's more

than 550 attorneys and government relations professionals, we provide

our franchise and distribution clients with business and strategic

solutions that address the full spectrum of franchise-related issues in

more than 40 industries including: food chain, hospitality, dry

cleaning, retail, fashion design, real estate, car rental, as well as

education and training. Additional Offices: Alexandria, VA; Aventura,

FL; Buffalo, NY; Harrisburg, PA; Miami, FL; New York, NY; Philadelphia,

PA; Pittsburgh, PA; Princeton, NJ; Redwood Shores, CA; San Diego, CA;

Tampa, FL; Washington, DC; and Wilmington, DE.


(888) 895-2080

(303) 792-5595

(303) 708-0527 FAX

40 Inverness Drive East, Denver, CO 80112



CONTACT: Peter Burg, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Burg Simpson focuses on complex litigation

matters. The firm is frequently retained as litigation counsel in

disputes involving franchisors and franchisees. The firm has offices in

Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, Ohio, Arizona and Washington, D.C.


(877) 875-9636

(813) 224-9255

(813) 223-9620 FAX

P.O. Box 3913, Tampa, FL 33601-3913



CONTACT: Edward O. Savitz, Attorney; Mark A. Basurto, Attorney



(305) 530-0050

(305) 530-0055 FAX

100 SE Second Street, Suite 4000, Miami, FL 33131



CONTACT: Jason M. Murray, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Carlton Fields provides legal counsel and

assistance with creating, managing, licensing, protecting and enforcing

franchised business relationships, product distribution systems and

dealership networks. The law fir-m's franchise and distribution law

practice specifically relates to licensing and development, regulation

and compliance, and dispute resolution through negotiation, mediation,

arbitration and litigation.


(416) 860-2987

(416) 869-5982

(416) 640-3043 FAX

40 King Street West, Suite 2100, Scotia Plaza, Toronto, ON M5H 3C2




CONTACT: Larry Weinberg, Partner; Geoff Shaw, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Cassels Brock is a Toronto based full-service

business law firm. Our Franchise Law Group is recognized across Canada and around the world for its extensive legal and practical experience in

all facets of franchising.


(312) 243-1701

(312) 243-1721 FAX

1101 West Fulton Market, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60607



CONTACT: Fredric A. Cohen, Member; Amy Cheng, Member



(215) 659-3600

(215) 659-3222 FAX

721 Dresher Road, Suite 1100, Horsham, PA 19025



CONTACT: Harris J. Chernow, Attorney

Westmont Office

216 Haddon Avenue, #704, Westmont, NJ 08108

Philadelphia Office

1515 Market Street, #1410, Philadelphia, PA 19102

Baltimore Office

10995 Owings Mills Blvd.--Suite 208, Owings Mills, MD21117

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A national franchise, intellectual property and

business law firm providing comprehensive, practical, solution-oriented

counseling. Representing single and multi unit franchisees, franchisors,

distributors, and area and master developers with franchise,

transactional, regulatory and dispute resolution matters. Offices in PA,

NJ, MD and DC.


(877) 413-6482

(416) 413-9822

(416) 324-5439 FAX

22 St. Clair Avenue East, Suite 1010, Toronto, ON M4T 2S3 Canada



CONTACT: Markus Cohen, Managing Director; Lisa Bertucca, Executive


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Practising law since 1964, Mark limits his law

practice to franchise and--as a Certified Specialist in Ontario,

Canada--trademark law.


(973) 535-0500

(973) 535-9217 FAX

85 Livingston Avenue, Roseland, NJ 07068



CONTACT: Bryan P. Couch, Attorney; Jeffrey L. O'Hara, Attorney

Jersey City Office

2510 Plaza Five, Jersey City, NJ 07311-4029

New York Office

888 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10106

Philadelphia Office

1500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full-service law firm with more than 115

attorneys and more than twenty distinct practice areas to meet corporate

clients' needs.


(888) 287-6777

(303) 768-0027 FAX

13710 East Rice Place, Aurora, CO 80015



CONTACT: Michael J. Katz, President & CEO

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchisee Consulting and Brokerage.


(202) 662-6000

(202) 662-6291 FAX

1201 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20004-2401



CONTACT: Henriette Tielemans, Partner



55 21 2553 181

55 21 2553 1812 FAX

Rua Marques de Olinda, 70, Rio De Janeiro 22251-040 Brazil



CONTACT: Luiz Henrique O. do Amaral, Partner; Peter Dirk Siemsen,

Senior Partner



(416) 941-5399

(416) 365-7886 FAX

1 First Canadian Place, Suite 5600, Toronto, ON MX5 1E2 Canada



CONTACT: John L. Rogers, National Chair, Toronto; Dana Schindelka,

Vice Chair, Calgary

Vancouver Office

2800 Park Place, 666 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6C 2Z7 Canada

Calgary Office

3000 Shell Centre, 400-4th Avenue SW, Calgary, AB T2P 0J4 Canada

Montreal Office

1010 de la Gauchetiere St. West, #2250, Montreal, QCH3B 2N2 Canada

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Davis LLP's National Franchise &

Licensing Group has extensive experience in all aspects of franchise law

including structuring franchise systems; drafting franchise agreements;

disclosure documents and related agreements; and expanding foreign

franchise systems to Canada. Our Group also specializes in related areas

including intellectual property; international law; internet and

e-commerce; personal information dis closure and privacy; arbitration and

litigation; employment law; tax, and competition (anti-trust) law. Davis

& Company has offices in 7 cities in Canada including Vancouver,

Toronto, Calgary and Montreal and is the only Canadian firm with an

office in Japan (Tokyo). Our Franchise & Distribution Group is led

by John L. Rogers, who is one of only six franchise lawyers listed in

L'Expert's 2002 Guide to Leading 500 Lawyers in Canada, and is

a past director of IFA's Supplier Forum. Established in 1892.


(503) 241-2300

(503) 778-5299 FAX

1300 SW Fifth Avenue, Suite 2300, Portland, OR 97201



CONTACT: Riley Lagesen, Associate



(973) 966-8068

(973) 966-1015 FAX

P.O. Box 1945, Morristown, NJ 07962



CONTACT: Dennis R. LaFiura, Esq., Managing Partner; David S. Sager,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Day Pitney LLP is a law firm that has represented

franchisors in hundreds of disputes involving terminations, trademark

infringement, and enforcing system standards. Industry expertise

includes motor vehicles, hotels, real estate brokerage, and others.


+61 3 8686 6000

+61 3 8686 6505 FAX

385 Bourke Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 03000 Australia



CONTACT: Greg Hipwell, Partner; Stephen Giles, Partner

Brisbane Office

River side Centre, 123 Eagle Street, Brisbane, QLD 04000 Australia

Sydney Office

1 Alfred Street, Circular Quay, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal firm specializing in providing legal and

business advice to franchising and distribution clients. We are

generally regarded as Australia's leading franchise law firm.


(202) 420-2200

(202) 420-2201 FAX

1825 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Alan Schaeffer, Esq., Partner; Andrew J. Sherman, Esq.,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Dickstein Shapiro LLP is a full service law firm

with 400 attorneys in offices in Washington, DC, New York City, and Los

Angeles, representing clients in diverse industries with a wide varie ty

of requirements. Our franchise and licensing attorneys have extensive

experience in franchise, licensing and distribution transactions and

regulation and they regularly advise manufacturers, licensors and

franchisors with respect to all aspects of franchise and distribution

systems development, implementation and channel management, leveraging

intellectual property, and counseling on general corporate and

commercial matters. The firm's franchising clients represent a wide

range of industries, including, restaurants and food services; medical

devices and health care; building materials; home remodeling/repair;

information technology; fashion and apparel; accounting and business

consulting; specialty retail; landscaping; for-profit

education/training; children's activities; lodging and hospitality;

cleaning/maintenance; travel/tourism; automotive manufacturing,

distributi on, maintenance and repair; convenience stores and service

stations; professional sports franchises; hair care and personal

services; and retail electronics.


+61 (732) 46400261

+61 (732) 294077 FAX

Level 29 Waterfront Place, 1 Eagle Street, Brisbane, Queensland

04075 Australia



CONTACT: Tony Conahan, Partner



(312) 368-4000

(312) 236-7516 FAX

203 North LaSalle Street, Suite 1800 JY, Chicago, IL 60601-1293



CONTACT: Lewis G. Rudnick, Dennis E. Wieczorek; Fredric A. Cohen,

Michael G. Brennan

Washington, D.C. Office

(202) 223-2085 FAX

1200 Nineteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-2412


CONTACT: Philip F. Zeidman; John Dienelt; Erik B. Wulff

Dallas Office

(214) 743-4545 FAX

1717 Main Street, Suite 4600, Dallas, TX 75201-4605


CONTACT: Ann Hurwit

Tampa Office

(813) 229-2111

(813) 229-1447 FAX

101 E. Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 2000, Tampa, FL33602


CONTACT: David A. Beyer

Reston Office

(703) 773-4000

(703) 773-5000 FAX

1775 Wiehle Avenue, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190


CONTACT: H. Bret Lowell; Barry Heller

TYPE OF BUSINESS: DLA Piper is a national commercial law firm. We

concentrate our practice in franchising and distribution, complex and

general civil litigation and arbitration, trademark and intellectual

property, information technology, antitrust and trade regulation,

international, securities, mergers and acquisitions, real estate,

leasing, environmental, finance, venture capital, emerging companies,

telecommunications, business regulation, health, banking and labor law.

We have practiced franchising, distribution and related areas of law for

more than 40 years. The 25 partners in our franchising and distribution

law group average in excess of 20 years of experience in those fields.

We represent companies engaged in domestic and international franchising

and distribution matters, including structuring, documentation,

counseling, litigation and arbitration, technology, fina nce and

regulatory compliance. Our clients operate in most of the business

sectors that have adopted franchising as a method of distribution and

represent a broad spectrum of size and experience, from entrepreneurs

and start-up companies to large franchisors, manufacturers and

distributors. Our clients oversee networks that range from dozens to

thousands of outlets. The majority of our clients are franchisors and

distribution companies, but we also represent multiple outlet, area

development and master franchisees and franchising-joint ventures, on a

wide variety of franchising, distribution, corporate, real estate,

finance, securities, environmental, tax and other matters. Our practice

is international in scope. We have done work for clients in over 100

countries. We serve as General Counsel to the International Franchise

Association. The firm has offices that practice franchise and

distribution law in Chicago (312) 368-4000, Washington, D.C. (202)

861-3900, Northern Virginia (703) 733-4000, Atlanta (404) 736-7800,

Dallas (214) 743-4500, Tampa (813) 229-2111, Los Angeles (310) 595-3000,

Baltimore (410) 580-3000, New York (212) 835-6000 and Philadelphia (215)



(800) 566-1718

(206) 903-8700

(206) 903-8820 FAX

1420 5th Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101



CONTACT: Gary R. Duvall, Partner

Seattle Office

1420 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101

CONTACT: Gary R. Duvall, CFE

Palo Alto Office

1717 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Our Franchise and Distribution Law practice group

helps clients expand through franchising and other distribution methods.

Our clients are both US and International.


(310) 828-9050

(310) 828-9101 FAX

1620 26th Street, North Tower, 6th Floor, Santa Monica, CA 90404



CONTACT: Susan Grueneberg, Partner; Robert L. Kahan, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: With offices in Los Angeles, New York and

Stamford, Connecticut, we are a full-service firm with an active

franchise practice that includes national and international clients. We

have expertise in structuring franchise and other types of distribution

programs, registration and disclosure compliance, franchise litigation

and related areas such as mergers and acquisitions of franchise

companies. In addition to all aspects of franchise law, we are

especially well-positioned to assist clients in the areas of business

litigation, corporate law, employment law, entertainment litigation,

financial institutions law, insurance law, intellectual property and

high technology law, real estate law and securities litigation. Our

clientele includes national and regional franchise and subfranchise

programs, domestic and multinational Fortune 500 companies, emerging

companies and individuals in diverse areas of business.


(212) 391-9500

(212) 391-9025 FAX

104 West 40th Street, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10018



CONTACT: Michael Einbinder, Partner



(303) 659-734 2

(303) 659-1051 FAX

600 17th Street, Suite 2800 South, Denver, CO 80202-5428



CONTACT: Van Elmore, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal services for domestic & international

franchising including Uniform Franchise Offering Circular and contract

drafting, state franchise offering registration, trademark registration

and licensing, copyright registration and licensing, software licenses and Internet agreements. Mr. Elmore also provides mediation and

arbitration for domestic and international franchise disputes.

Previously Vice President and General Counsel for a 450 unit franchise

system. Mr. Elmore has also been a franchisee and has conversational

ability in the Russian language. Established in 1992.


+44 845 497 4862

+44 207 919 4500

+44 207 919 4919 FAX

Senator House, 85 Queen Victoria Street, London EC4V 4JL United




CONTACT: Christopher Wormald, Partner--Head of Franchising; Martin

Mendelsohn, Chair, European Franchising Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: International Commercial law firm with offices in

10 UK cities: London, Birmingham, Cardiff. Ipswich, Leeds, Manchester,

Newcastle, Norwich, Nottingham and overseas locations including

Brussels, Paris, Munich and Shanghai. Associated offices in Copenhagen,

Milan, Rome and Sofia, Singapore (including Indonesia) and Kuala Lumpa.

Specialist areas include: International and domestic Franchising;

distribution and supply arrangements; licensing; intellectual property;

UK and European anti-trust laws; and the complete range of business and

corporate legal services.


(800) 328-4393

(612) 766-7000

(612) 766-1600 FAX

2200 Wells Fargo Center, 90 South Seventh Street, Minneapolis, MN




CONTACT: Brian Schnell, Partner; Bill L. Killion, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchising is our Passion/E. Franchising also is

one of the most dynamic and exciting growth vehicles in our global

economy. To achieve its objectives in the challenging, yet rewarding,

franchise world, a franchisor must partner with a legal team that not

only understands franchising, but also takes the time to understand the

franchisor's business and objectives. We know the franchise

business top to bottom, including the complexities cre ated by the

overlap of state and federal law. We also understand the challenges of

building and operating a franchise system. It's your business. You

need answers and we'll provide unparalleled legal support.


(215) 825-3100

(215) 545-8313 FAX

21 South 21st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103



CONTACT: Lane Fisher, Member; Jeff Zucker, Member

Cherry Hill Office

402 Park Boulevard, Cherry Hill, NJ 08002

Brunswick Office

777 Gloucester Street, Suite 355, Brunswick, GA 31520

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FisherZucker LLC's practice is dedicated to

franchising. With offices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, we assist

franchisors in development, regulatory compliance, operations and

enforcement matters. Contact us for information.


(510) 451-3309

(510) 451-1537 FAX

1221 Broadway, 21st Floor, Oakland, CA 94612



CONTACT: Mary Beth Trice, Special Counsel



(608) 258-4273

(608) 258-4258 FAX

P.O. Box 1497, Madison, WI 53701-1497



CONTACT: Bobbi Howell, Esq., Partner



(201) 845-1000

(201) 845-9112 FAX

218 Route 17 North, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662

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CONTACT: Daniel M. Eliades, Member; Charles M. Forman, Member

Philadelphia Office

1615 Jackson Street, Philadelphia, PA 19145

Suffern Office

400 Rella Boulevard, Suite 214, Suffern, NY 10901

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Forman Holt & Eliades represents some of the

largest franchisors in the world in bankruptcy cases throughout the

United States. The firm regularly represents franchisors in a broad

range of bankruptcy litigation including plan confirmation issues, asset

sales, stay litigation, preference matters, claim objections and

intellectual property protection.


(412) 391-1334

(412) 391-6984 FAX

625 Liberty Avenue, 29th Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3115


In ternet:

CONTACT: Gerald A. Cook, Attorney & CoChair, Franchising

Practice; Elizabeth D. Sigety, Attorney & Co-Chair, Franchising


Philadelphia Office

2000 Market Street, 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103

New York Office

100 Park Avenue, Suite 1500, New York, NY 10017

San Francisco Office

235 Pine Street, Suite 1500San Francisco, CA94104

West Palm Beach Office

222 Lakeview Avenue, Suite 700, West Palm Beach, FL33401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Our attorneys provide solutions for the business

and litigation needs of the franchising and distribution community. Our

clients range from international corporations to

entrepreneurial/start-up companies in the manufacturing, retail, food,

entertainment and service. industries, among others. Our experi enced

team is comprised of approximately 25 attorneys throughout the firm who

focus on the many disciplines involved in the business of franchising

and distribution. Fox Rothschild LLP is a full-service law firm built to

serve business leaders. Over the past 100 years, we have grown to 400

lawyers in 14 offices coast to coast. Our clients come to us because we

understand their issues, their priorities, and the way they think. We

help clients manage risk and make better decisions by offering

practical, innovative advice. For more information about Fox Rothschild

LLP, please visit


(866) 986-0099

(410) 986-0099

(410) 986-0123 FAX

20 South Charles Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201


Internet: http://www.franbuslaw.c om

CONTACT: David L. Cahn, Owner; David G. Ross, Of Counsel,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Boutique practice focused on representing the

legal needs of franchisors and franchisees.


(646) 215-7903

(646) 215-7908 FAX

142 West End Avenue, Suite 30P, New York, NY 10023



CONTACT: Jeffrey Kolton, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FMV assists start-ups in analyzing franchising;

established franchise systems seeking alternative expansion methods; and

vendors looking to increase their market share within the franchise



(888) 372-6529 (888) FRANLAW

(630) 571-5626

(630) 571-1882 FAX

1301 West 22nd Street, Suite 709, Oak Brook, IL 60523-2006



CONTACT: Michael R. Liss, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Complete franchise legal services, at

cost-effective prices. 25 year background representing franchisors and

franchisees in franchise agreement, offering circular, and registration

compliance issues. Negotiates contracts and litigates disputes.

Expertise in franchise transfers, real estate leasing, selling

businesses, general business counseling, incorporating and trademarks.

Expert Witness. National Practice. Established in 1980.


(612) 492-7000

(612) 492-7077 FAX

200 South Sixth Street, Suite 4000, Minneapolis, MN 55402


Internet: http://www.fredl

CONTACT: Emily E. Duke, Chair, Franchise Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Fredrikson & Byron's Franchising Group

represents clients in every phase of franchising, both domestically and

internationally. Our attorneys handle business and legal issues for

companies ranging from the start-up franchisor to the mature franchise

system. Our services encompass a broad spectrum of legal expertise,

including structuring franchise programs, disclosure and registration,

preparing franchise and related agreements, compliance with franchise

laws in the United States and overseas, business planning, termination

of franchisees, advertising issues, intellectual property issues, sales

compliance, dealing with franchisee advisory councils and associations,

and antitrust issues. As a result, our attorneys are intimately familiar

with U.S. federal and state laws and foreign laws that a pply to

franchise companies doing business domestically and overseas.


(561) 395-5511

(561) 395-2648 FAX

The Plaza, Suite 801, 5355 Town Center Road, Boca Raton, FL 33486



CONTACT: Ronald N. Rosenwasser, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FRG develops, reviews, and analyzes international

and domestic franchise programs and prepares all legal documents and

provides litigation and arbitration services.


(513) 651-6800

(513) 651-6745

(513) 651-6981 FAX

201 East 5th Street, Suite 2200, Cincinnati, OH 45202



CONTACT: Grant S. Cowan , Member



(212) 935-3131

(212) 935-4514 FAX

845 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022-6601



CONTACT: David T. Azrin, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Experienced attorneys providing comprehensive

legal representation to franchisors and franchisees at a reasonable

cost. We handle UFOCs, contracts, litigation, employment, real estate,

and tax matters.


(305) 349-2333

(305) 349-2310 FAX

100 SE 2nd Street, 44th Floor, Bank of America, Miami, FL




CONTACT: Michael D. Joblove, Pa rtner; Jonathan E. Perlman, Partner

Fort Lauderdale Office

200 East Broward Boulevard, Suite 1110, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301

TYPE OF BUSINESS: GJB represent clients in complex commercial,

franchise, securities and employment litigation, bankruptcy, insolvency

and workout engagements representing debtors, trustees, committees,

creditors and receivers.



64-9-308-9922 FAX

P.O. Box 1542, Auckland 01140 New Zealand



CONTACT: Stewart Germann, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Lawyers and notary public providing legal

services in New Zealand. Specialists in franchising law, licensing and

distribution agreements in particular. Stewart Germann is a Past

Chairman of the Fran chise Association and has contacts throughout New

Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA. The firm also

handles all aspects of property law including real estate leasing,

selling businesses, commercial law and company law in New Zealand.

Established in 1993.


(787) 759-8000

(787) 759-4139 FAX

250 Munoz Rivera Avenue, 14th Floor, San Juan, PR 00918



CONTACT: Rossell Barrios, Stockholder



5255 5202-7622

5255 5520-7671 FAX

Montes Urales No. 632 Piso 3, Lomas de Chapultepec, 11000 Mexico




CONTACT: Jorge Mondragon, Partner; Pablo Hooper, Partner,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Gonzalez Calvillo, S.C. offers an active

franchising/IP practice as a full-service firm. Our practice ranges from

offering expert counsel related to legal, contractual, corporate and tax

structure for the implementation of franchises and licensing, and

assisting with registrations and prosecution to representing clients in

litigation and dispute resolution proceedings.



(604) 683-6498

(604) 683-3558 FAX

1055 Dunsmuir Street, Suite 2300, P.O. Box

49122, Vancouver, BC V7X 1J1 Canada



CONTACT: Leonard H. Polsky, Partner; Edward N. Levitt, Partner

Toronto Office

100 King Street West, Suite 1600, Toronto, ON M5X 1G5 Canada,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm--domestic and international

practice--all aspects of franchise law, including business, contracts,

intellectual property protection, litigation and alternative dispute

resolution. Established in 1877. We are also patent and trademark



(800) 458-1705

(206) 624-8300

(206) 340-9599 FAX

Pier 70, 2801 Alaskan Way, Suite 300, Seattle, WA 98121-1128



CONTACT: David M. Byers, Attorney; Doug C. Berry, Attorney,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm providing franchisors and

franchisees all necessary legal services, including registration and

disclosure compliance, internet law, dispute resol ution, intellectual

property protection, and legal compliance audits. Established in 1890.


(612) 632-3064

(202) 295-2202 D.C. Office

(612) 632-4064 FAX

80 South Eighth Street, 500 IDS Center, Minneapolis, MN 55402-3796



CONTACT: John W. Fitzgerald, Co-Chair, Franchise Group; Robert

Zisk, Co-Chair, Franchise Group

St. Cloud Office

1010 West St. Germain Street, Suite 600, St. Cloud, MN 56301

Washington, D.C. Office

2600 Virginia Ave., N.W., Suite 1111--The Watergate, Washington, DC


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Gray Plant Mooty is a full-service law firm with

approximately 160 attorneys. From our offices in Minnesota and

Washington, D.C., our 35 member Franchise and Distribution Team works

with franchisors throughout the U.S., Canada and many other countries.

Our clients' business objectives drive our approach to providing

legal services. We recognize that every step, from the initial

construction of a franchise concept through growth and expansion, will

directly impact the franchisor's future profits. We also understand

the dynamics and intricacies of franchisor-franchisee relationships, and

the importance of these relationships in maintaining the overall

integrity of the franchise system. Clients range from emerging and

start-up companies to mature, established franchisors. Our services

include franchise program development and regulatory compliance,

trademark counseling and registration, financing and acquisition,

relationship counseling, financial fraud and underreporting.


(602) 445-800 0

(602) 445-8100 FAX

2375 East Camelback Road, Suite 700, Phoenix, AZ 85016-3424


CONTACT: Jim Ullman; Jeff Wolf

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Greenberg Traurig's franchise team prides

itself on providing quality legal representation with a focus on

practical, business-oriented solutions. With more than 30 years of

franchise transactional and litigation experience, we have a thorough

understanding of both the legal and business aspects of franchising. Our

goal is to establish a long-term successful client relationship defined

by reliability, responsiveness, trust, and an unwavering commitment to

providing the highest quality legal services available.


(314) 241-9090

(314) 421-0831 FAX

10 South Broadway, Suite 2000, St. Louis, M O 63102



CONTACT: Eric Riess, Esq., Practice Group Manager

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Attorneys and Counselors since 1895.


(702) 222-2500

(702) 365-6940 FAX

3930 Howard Hughes Parkway, 4th Floor, Las Vegas, NV 89169



CONTACT: Matt Kreutzer, Attorney; Brent Eckersley, Attorney

Reno Office

5441 Kietzke Lane, Second Floor, Reno, NV 89511

Carson City Office

777 East William Street, Suite 200, Carson City, NV 89701

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Hale Lane offers a full range of legal services

to franchisors, handling all aspects of the franchise relationship.

These s ervices include: developing, protecting and licensing franchise

systems; franchisee negotiations, mediation, and litigation; creation of

Uniform Franchise Offering Circulars, franchise and license agreements.

Additionally, Hale Lane attorneys offer guidance and advice in a variety

of general business matters, including tax, estate planning, labor and

employment, real estate, and general commercial litigation.


44 (0121) 237-202044

44 (0121) 233-9686 FAX

120 Edmund Street, Birmingham B3 2ES United Kingdom



CONTACT: John Pratt, Partner; Gurmeet Jakhu, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We are specialists with a worldwide reputation in

all aspects of franchising. Our clients range from

start-up companies to large multi-natio nals.


(214) 651-5000

(214) 200-0855 FAX

901 Main Street, Suite 3100, Dallas, TX 75202


CONTACT: Joyce G. MazeroPartner

Washington, DC Office

(202) 654-4500

(202) 654-4501 FAX

1615 L Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Haynes and Boone's Franchise and

Distribution attorneys are experienced and internationally recognized

authorities in Franchise and Distribution law. We are perceived by many

as some of the best and most influential franchise lawyers in the world.

We are authors of countless books and articles, and are respected

sources of expertise for numerous publications and editorial boards.

With the support of Haynes and Boone's full-service client-oriented

te am capabilities, we can help clients address the wide range of

domestic and international issues that affect their businesses in order

to construct meaningful and cost-effective solutions. We have the

specialized knowledge to assist companies to decide whether and how to

establish new franchise, licensing and distribution programs, both

domestically and internationally. We represent companies of all sizes

and in diverse industries, from retail to hospitality to manufacturing.

Our Franchise and Distribution Practice Group works alongside our

Corporate/Securities, Mergers & Acquisitions, Intellectual Property,

Venture Capital, Finance, Tax and Business Litigation Practice Groups,

providing the necessary assistance when business issues or problems

arise. We have represented clients in over 100 countries. The firm has

offices that practice franchise and distribution law in Dallas,

Was hington, DC (202) 654-4540, and Mexico City (52-55) 55-40-5558.


(704) 343-2000

(704) 343-2300 FAX

201 North Tryon Street, Charlotte, NC 28231



CONTACT: Corby C. Anderson, Attorney; John Yorke, Attorney



(416) 977-3444

(416) 977-6666

(416) 977-3332 FAX

425 University Avenue, Suite 300, Toronto, ON M5G 1T6 Canada



CONTACT: Joseph Adler, Partner; Lloyd Hoffer, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We assist US franchisors to expand their

franchise systems into Canada and represent a formidable, efficient and

cost-effective solution to your franchising legal problems and needs.


(888) 547-0697

(805) 550-9323

(562) 596-0116

(805) 547-0716 FAX

6621 E. Pacific Coast Hwy, Suite 250, Long Beach, CA 90803



CONTACT: David E. Holmes, Attorney; Loft Lofstrom, Attorney

San Luis Obispo Office

(562) 596-0416 FAX

4251 S. Higuera Street, #401, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Holmes & Lofstrom, LLP specializes in

franchising and has established a national reputation in franchise law,

representing domestic and international franchise systems from start-up

through maturity. Our goal is to help franchisors achieve expansion,

through practical, careful legal advice and insight gained from our

extensive experience with franchise concepts at all stages of

development. We offer affordable rates and do not compromise on

personalized service. At Holmes & Lofstrom, you have a direct

relationship with an experienced franchise attorney, who not only has an

in-depth knowledge of franchise law, but also has worked with a wide

range of successful systems and can share with you some proven best

practices allowing you to avoid many of the challenges to which you

might otherwise be exposed. We look forward to becoming a member of your

team and a resource on which you can draw as you grow.


(804) 787-8089

(804) 788-8218 FAX

Riverfront Plaza, East Tower, 951 East Byrd Street, Richmond, VA



Internet: http://www

CONTACT: Patrick J. Maslyn, Counsel; Robert J. Grey, Jr., Partner

Miami Office

1111 Brickell Avenue, #2500, Miami, FL 33131

Washington, DC Office

1900 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20006-1109

Beijing Office

517-520 South Office Tower, No. 1 Guanghua Road, Beijing 100020

People's Republic of China

Brussels Office

Avenue Louise 326, #B6, Brussels 01050 Belgium

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Hunton & Williams represents franchisors at

all stages of development in domestic and international transactions,

litigation, and counseling matters.


(317) 236-2308

(317) 592-4730 FAX

One American Square, Box 82001, Indianapolis, IN 46282-0002


Internet: http ://

CONTACT: James L. Petersen, Partner; Phil Whistler, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Many businesses choose to expand through

distribution or dealership networks or by selling franchises. Ice Miller

offers legal services to manufacturers, distributors, dealers,

retailers, business owners, licensors, licensees, franchisors and

franchisees. Such services include drafting and negotiating contracts,

registering and prosecuting trademarks, facilitating dispute resolution

and assisting with litigation. Ice Miller prepares offering circulars

and state franchise registrations and advises on compliance with state

and federal franchise and business opportunity laws. Ice Miller also

provides a full range of legal services needed by parties for

distribution and franchise agreements, including real estate,

construction, environmental, international, employment, antitrust and

intellectual property.



+34-93-415-2051 FAX

Passeig de Gracia 103, #7, Barcelona 08008 Spain



CONTACT: Agustin Bou, Attorney



(416) 703-5716

(416) 703-6180 FAX

365 Bay Street, 2nd Floor, Toronto, ON M5H 2V1 Canada



CONTACT: Paul Jones, Barrister, Solicitor & Trade-mark Agent

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We are a multi-lingual law firm that focuses on

franchising and intellectual property in Canada and internationally. We

provide cost-effective service in multiple countries.


(801) 521-3200

(801) 328-0537 FAX

170 S. Main Street, Suite 1500, Salt Lake City, UT 84101


CONTACT: Glen Watkins, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1875, Jones Waldo provides

innovative solutions with the highest level of legal expertise. Our

Franchise Practice Group serves clients from many different industries,

ranging in size from start-up franchisors to national distribution

networks. Our Franchise Practice Group can assist franchisors in every

aspect of their business, from franchise creation and compliance, to

arbitration and litigation of franchise disputes. A full service firm,

Jones Waldo also has considerable experience in other legal areas. As a

result, we can assemble a customized legal team to address the most

challenging client needs.


(847) 501-5300

(847) 501-5325 FAX

181 Waukegan Road, Suite 205, Northfield, IL 60093



CONTACT: Daniel S. Kaplan, Partner; Richard A. Greenswag, Attorney

Chicago Office

(847) 501-5300

(847) 501-5325 FAX

600 West Jackson, 2nd Fir., Chicago, IL 60661

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Kaplan & Greenswag, LLC blends real-world,

practical business acumen with a thorough understanding of what makes

franchising a unique legal environment.


(757) 624-3257

(757) 624-3169 FAX

150 West Main Street, Suite 2100, Norfolk, VA 23510


Internet: http://www.kaufmanan

CONTACT: Stephen E. Story, Member

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The largest law firm in southeastern Virginia

(with offices in Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport

News, Williamsburg, and Richmond) generally representing franchisors and

franchisees in counseling and litigation.


(212) 755-3100

(212) 755-3174 FAX

777 Third Avenue, 24th Floor, New York, NY 10017


CONTACT: David J. Kaufmann, Senior Partner; Jeffrey E. Kolton,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: New York's premier franchise law firm, which

prides itself on serving both novice and mature franchisors in a

comprehensive fashion. All of the partners and associates at Kanfmann

Feiner possess expertise in the field of franchising, as well as all

other fields germane to franchisors, including corporate/securities;

real estate; finance; transactional; advertising; and labor. In

addition, Kaufmann Feiner's extensive litigation capabilities

routinely give rise to landmark franchise rulings around the country.

Kaufmann Feiner's franchise expertise extends to all aspects of

establishing or expanding a national franchise program and includes:

structuring and financing the franchise entity; drafting, and securing

the registration.


(704) 331-7582

(704) 353-3282 FAX

214 North Tryon Street, Suite 4700, Charlotte, NC 28202



CONTACT: Kevin P. Stichter, Partner



(203) 782-9076

(203) 782-9081 FAX

205 Church Street, 3rd Floor, New Haven, CT 06510



CONTACT: Scott Kern, Member

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchise attorneys representing franchisors in

regulatory, contract and litigation matters and representing franchisees

in acquisition and divestiture transactions.


(404) 815-6366

(404) 541-3122 FAX

1100 Peachtree Street, Suite 2800, Atlanta, GA 30309-4501


Internet: http://www.kilpatrickst

CONTACT: Rupert M. Barkoff, Partner



(952) 885-5999

(952) 885-5969 FAX

8000 Norman Center Drive, Suite 1000, Minneapolis, MN 55437



CONTACT: Dennis L. Monroe, Chair; Tom Macintosh, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Krass Monroe, P.A. has a national practice and

strong reputation for its work in the multi-unit franchise industry. We

have the expertise and experience to deliver unparalleled services in

the areas of mergers and acquisitions, financing, (including senior

debt, mezzanine financing, equity investment and other specialty finance

transactions), franchising and distribution, financial workout and

restructuring, commercial real estate, estate and business succession

planning, wealth preservation and taxation. Krass Monroe's recently

expanded legal services to franchisors includes: planning and

structuring of franchise and distribution systems, preparation of

Uniform Franchise Offering Circulars, preparation of franchise

agreements, preparation of master franchise and development agreements

as well as trademark evaluation, registration and enforcement. We offer

creative ideas, identify unique financing sources, and help develop the

financial and franchise tools necessary for the growth, viability,

success and development of our clients.


(303) 297-2400

(303) 292-7799 FAX

1801 California Street, Suite 3100, Denver, CO 80202



CONTACT: Jennifer Wisniewski, Esq.

Omaha Office

The Omaha Building, 1650 Farnam Street, Omaha, NE 68102

Los Angeles Office

515 South Fig ueroa Street, Suite 1240, Los Angeles, CA 90071

Scottsdale Office

8601 North Scottsdale Road, Suite 300, Scottsdale, Arizona 85253

Atlanta Office

225 Peachtree Stret, NE, Suite 2100, Atlanta, GA 30303

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Kutak Rock's Franchising and Distribution

Practice represents local and national clients in a broad range of

franchise issues including registration, disclosure, relationship and

business opportunity laws, licensing, distribution, intellectual

property, litigation, dispute resolution and corporate finance. Our team

includes lawyers from multiple disciplines allowing us to effectively

represent clients in various industries and at all phases of growth. We

believe that the best results are had by putting together legal teams

that understand a client's industry and have the relevant legal

expertise to obtain the desi red goal. With over 375 lawyers in 15

offices nationwide, we have the breadth and depth of expertise to create

the right legal team for you.


(416) 360-8600

(604) 689-9111

(416) 304-3810 FAX

181 Bay Street, Suite 2500, P.O. Box 747, Toronto, ON M5J 2T7




CONTACT: Robert Glass (Toronto), Richard Meagher (Toronto); James

Bond (Vancouver)

Vancouver Office

1500 Royal Centre, 1055 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC V6E 4N6


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service Canadian law firm with experience in

all areas of franchising, including trade-marks, trade secrets,

advertising, competition law, system acquisition, litigation and

disclosure. Offices in Toronto, Ottawa and Vancouver. Established in



(514) 925-6300

(514) 925-9001 FAX

1250 Rene-Levesque Blvd. West, Suite 1400, Montreal, PQ H3B 5E9




CONTACT: Alex S. Konigsberg, Queen's Counsel

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Lapointe Rosenstein is a full service business

law firm specializing in domestic and international franchising and

distribution with an international network of lawyers, accountants and

bankers. Established in 1966.


(952) 835-3800

(952) 896-3333 FAX

1500 Wells Fargo Plaza, 7900 Xerxes Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN



Internet: http://www.larkinhoffman .com

CONTACT: Charles S. Modell, Chair, Franchise Practice Group; Andrew

F. Perrin, Shareholder, Franchise Practice Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm, representing franchisors

in structuring, drafting and registering franchise documents,

negotiations with franchisees, acquisitions, international expansion,

arbitration, mediation and litigation.


(703) 647-5945

(703) 684-8075 FAX

225 Reinekers Lane, Suite 700, Alexandria, VA 22314



CONTACT: R. Scott Caulkins, Shareholder

Richmond Office

951 East Byrd Street, #800, Richmond, VA 23219

Norfolk Office

999 Waterside Drive, #2525, Norfolk, VA 23510

Roanoke Office

10 South Jefferson Street, #1800, Roanoke, VA 24011

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We have a full service practice for franchisors,

including preparing franchise agreements, UFOC's, counseling on

trademark and IP issues, and franchise litigation. We represent

franchises in negotiating contracts, business formation, sale of

franchise outlets and litigation.


86 1085321919 Ext. 286

86 1085321999 FAX

10-2 Liangmaqiao Diplomatic Compound, No. 22 Dongfang E. Rd.

Chaoyang Dis, Beijing 100600 China



CONTACT: Edward Lehman, Managing Director



(702) 243-0900

(702) 243-0342 FAX

3230 S. Buffalo Drive, Suite 104, Las Vegas, NV 89117



CONTACT: Jermaine S. Grubbs, Attorney



(214) 740-8000

(214) 740-8800 FAX

2200 Ross Avenue, Suite 2200, Dallas, TX 75201



CONTACT: Kevin L. Twining, Partner

Washington D.C. Office

901 Fifteenth Street, N.W., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20005

Houston Office

3400 Chase Tower, 600 Travis, Suite 3400,

Houston, TX 77002-3095

Austin Office

100 Congress, Suite 300, Austin, TX78701-4042

New Orleans Office

601 Poydras, Suite 2400, New Orleans, LA 70130-6036

< br>TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1891, this 400+ attorney firm has

broad-based and substantial experience representing franchisors,

franchisees, co-branding alliance partners and distributors in domestic

and international expansion. Practice groups include Franchise and

Distribution, Intellectual Property, International, Business Litigation

(including Franchise Litigation), Labor and Employment, Corporate and

Securities, Tax, Real Estate, Environmental, and Bankruptcy. The firm

has offices in Austin, Dallas and Houston, Texas, Washington, D.C., and

New Orleans, Louisiana. It also maintains close relationships with a

network of franchise lawyers around the world.


(213) 687-6705

(213) 485-1200 FAX

300 S. Grand Avenue, Suite 800, Los Angeles, CA 90071


Int ernet:

CONTACT: Christopher S. Reeder, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Founded in 1914, Lord, Bissell & Brook is a

full service law firm serving national and international clients from

offices in Atlanta, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York, Sacramento

and Washington, D.C. For additional information about Lord, Bissell

& Brook, please visits its Website at


(248) 827-1870

(248) 359-6170 FAX

28400 Northwestern Highway, Southfield, MI 48034-1839

CONTACT: Stuart M. Bordman, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm with extensive experience

in structuring, drafting and registering franchise documents,

negotiations with franchisees and negotiations with franchisors on

behalf of franchisees.

< br>

(919) 787-8880

(919) 571-2504 FAX

3605 Glenwood Avenue, Suite 500, Raleigh, NC 27612



CONTACT: Ritchie W. Taylor, Shareholder; Sandra Martin Clark,


Wilmington Office

300 North Third Street, #320, Wilmington, NC 28401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm representing franchise and

distribution networks throughout the United States by providing to

franchisors and franchisees experienced litigation and transactional

legal representation.


(732) 747-7100

(732) 219-0625 FAX

63 Riverside Avenue, Red Bank, NJ 07701


Internet: http://www.marks

CONTACT: Justin Klein, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm specializing in representation of single

and multi-unit franchisees from transactional to complex class action

litigation. We also represent and assist in the formation of independent

franchisee associations.



61-3-8540-0202 FAX

315 Ferntree Galley Road, Mount Waverley, VIC 03149 Australia



CONTACT: John Sier, Partner; Philip Colman, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Mason Sier Turnbull is one of Australia's

leading franchise and distribution law firms servicing both domestic and

international clients for over 20 years. Our franchise team comprises

some 17 franchise lawyers working in all areas of franchising. Jo hn Sier

is recognized in the International Who's Who of Franchising Lawyers

2004 edition after having been nominated by his peers.


(312) 782-0600

(312) 701-7711 FAX

71 South Wacker Drive, Suite 3200, Chicago, IL 60606




(212) 609-6832

(212) 645-0596 FAX

245 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10167



CONTACT: Timothy Fisher, Attorney



(202) 756-8616

(202) 756-8087 FAX

600 13th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Debra A. Harrison, Partner

Chicago Office

227 West Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60606

New York Office

340 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Boston Office

28 State Street, Boston, MA 02109

Los Angeles Office

2049 Century Park East, Los Angeles, CA 90067

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service international law firm; assists

clients in all aspects of franchising, distribution and licensing

relationships, including regulatory compliance, contract negotiation,

and intellectual property protection and leveraging.


(410) 823-8244

(410) 821-8123 FAX

One West Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 900, Towson, MD 21204-5076



CONTACT: Charles E. Rosolio, Esq., Principal



(313) 963-6420

(313) 496-8453 FAX

150 W. Jefferson, Suite 2500, Detroit, MI 48226



CONTACT: Irene Bruce Hathaway, Principal; Edwin J. Lukas, Senior


Ann Arbor Office

101 N. Main Street, 7th Floor, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Kalamazoo Office

444 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49007

Lansing Office

One Michigan Avenue, #900, Lansing, MI 48933

< br>
Troy Office

840 W. Long Lake Road, #200, Troy, MI 48098

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Representation in all aspects of franchising,

licensing and distributing products, services and business concepts.

Specialized and experienced attorneys serve both your transactional and

litigation needs. With offices throughout Michigan, and in New York,

Florida, Canada and Europe, and professional networks in Asia and South

America, we provide rapid, cost-effective solutions to your concerns and



(514) 875-5210

(416) 595-2983

(514) 875-4308 FAX

CIBC Tower, 31st Floor, 1155 Rene-Levesque Boulevard West,

Montreal, PQ H3B 3S6 Canada


CONTACT: Stephane Teasdale (Montreal), Partner & Chair,

Franchise Law Group; Richard Leblanc (Toronto), Attorney

Toronto Office

Scotia Plaza, 40 King Street West, Suite 5800, Toronto, ON M5H 3S1


Vancouver Office

1000-840 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2M1 Canada

Calgary Office

3000-700 Ninth Avenue SW, Calgary, AB T2P 3V4 Canada

Edmonton Office

2700 Commerce Place, 10155-102nd Street, Edmonton, AB T5J 4G Canada

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1957, this full service business

law firm is experienced in Canadian and international franchising and in

representing U.S. franchisors and master franchisees in Canada,

including patents trademarks, copyright, trade-secrets and computer law

matters. The firm has particular expertise in related distribution,

administrative and regulatory law matters such as liquor licensing, Food

and Drug Act compliance, packaging and lab elling, real estate licensing,

marketing, advertising and direct selling. The firm also has substantial

environmental law and labor, pensions and employment law practice

groups. In addition to the IFA, the firm is a member of the Canadian

Franchise Association.


(310) 556-3800

(310) 556-3817 FAX

1925 Century Park East, Suite 350, Los Angeles, CA 90067



CONTACT: Al Mohajerian, Attorney at Law

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchising, intellectual property, corporate,

business, small business, and trade secrets lawyers. Serving the global



(312) 324-1190

(312) 324-1001 FAX

77 West Wacker Drive, Sixth Floor, Chicago, IL 60601



CONTACT: Theodore M. Lewis, Partner; James R. Sims III, Partner



(972) 931-0022

(972) 931-0124 FAX

2425 N. Central Expressway, Suite 530, Richardson, TX 75080



CONTACT: Cheryl Mullin, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service law firm dedicated to serving

businesses and their owners. Whether we're structuring a franchise

program or managing multi-jurisdiction litigation, we focus on the big

picture and offer solutions aligned with your business strategy.


(800) 237-2000

(404) 817-6000

(404) 817-6050 FAX

999 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 1400, Atlanta, GA 30309



CONTACT: Richard K. hines, V, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1897, Nelson Mullins Riley &

Scarborough, L.L.P. is a full service law firm with more than 210

lawyers with six offices in the Southeast. The firm's Franchise

Practice serves the franchise industry nationwide in all aspects of

franchisor representation including the following: termination

litigation; alternative dispute resolution; buy-outs; developing

franchise programs; franchise offering circulars in compliance with

state and federal law; registering the sale of franchises with state

authorities; developing franchises and initiating business operations;

litigation; franchise agreement negotiations; and counseling. The fi rm

has provided legal service to a variety of franchise businesses

including the hospitality industry, restaurants and fast food

establishments, automotive manufacturers and distributors, optical

shops, athletic facilities, and amateur and professional sports leagues.


(617) 345-1000

(617) 345-1300 FAX

100 Summer Street, Boston, MA 02110-2131



CONTACT: Arthur L. Pressman, Partner; Andrew P. Loewinger, Partner

Philadelphia Office

(215) 246-3520

(215) 561-0410 FAX

1818 Market Street, 11th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103-3647


CONTACT: Craig R. Tractenberg

Rochester Office

(585) 236-1 000

(585) 263-1600 FAX

Clinton Square, P.O. Box 31051, Rochester, NY 14603


CONTACT: Robert B. Calihan

New York Office

(212) 940-3000

(212) 940-3111 FAX

437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY10022


CONTACT: Frank Ryan

San Francisco Office

(415) 984-8200

(415) 984-8300 FAX

Two Embarcadero Center, San Francisco, CA94111


CONTACT: Glenn E. Westreich

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Nixon Peabody LLP is one of the 50 largest law

firms in the United States with more than 650 attorneys in 14 offices

working in 15 major practice areas. The firm's franchise team is

led by Arthur Pressman and Andrew Loewinger, each reco gnized as one of

the top franchise lawyers in the 2004 edition of who's Who in

International Franchising. Our attorneys have represented clients in all

aspects of franchise and distribution arrangements and provided counsel

on a wide range of transactions, both domestically and internationally.

We also represent clients in all phases of domestic and international

dispute resolution and litigation arising from their franchising and

distribution arrangements. The franchise team is able to draw on the

knowledge and experience of colleagues throughout the firm, and the team

is unique among major law firm franchise practices by combining its

sophisticated corporate and transactional practice with a nationally and

internationally known franchise litigation expertise. The integration of

our franchise transactional practice and franchise dispute resolution

practice enables us to most effe ctively counsel clients on risk

avoidance and risk management. Nixon Peabody's newsletter,

Franchise Law Alert, helps franchisors and franchisees keep up to date

on relevant legal developments affecting the franchise industry.


49 30-20942077


49-30-20942094 FAX

Charlottenstrasse 57, Berlin 10117 Germany



CONTACT: Dr. Karsten Metzlaff; Dr. Karl Rauser

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established in 1950.


(55) 53223000

(55) 53223001 FAX

Pedro Luis Ogazon Num. 17 Col. San Angel, Mexico City, D.F. 01000




CONTACT: Gustavo Alcocer, Esq., Partner



(414) 276-5000

(414) 276-6581 FAX

111 E. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53202-4870



CONTACT: Chad J. Richter, Attorney



(416) 862-6415

(416) 862-6666 FAX

Box 50, 1 First Canadian Place, Toronto, ON M5X 1B8Canada



CONTACT: Frank Zaid, Senior Partner; Andraya Frith, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: If you or your franchise clients are thinking

about expanding north of the border, consider us your legal partner in

Canada. Osler is ranked as the most frequently recommended firm for

franchising law in the 2007 Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory, consistent

with our rankings in all other published legal directories. We have

extensive cross-border experience, provide national full-service

business advice and litigation counsel and have assisted nearly 350

franchise systems over the past 30 years.


(856) 985-4089

(856) 552-1428 FAX

Three Greentree Centre, 7001 Lincoln Drive West, Marlton, NJ 08053



CONTACT: David R. Dahan, Esq., Shareholder; John M. Devlin, Esq.,


Atlantic City Office

8025 Black Horse Pike, Suite 325, West Atlantic City, NJ 08232

Lawrenceville Office

1009 Lenox Drive, Building Four East, Suite 102A, Lawrenceville, NJ


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm with extensive experience in commercial

transactions and litigation, including franchises, distribution,

licensing, intellectual property and business formation and counseling.


(800) 588-7459

(404) 815-2400

(404) 815-2400 FAX

600 Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 2400, Atlanta, GA 30308-2222



CONTACT: Richard M. Asbill, Partner; W. Andrew Scott, Partner

Los Angeles Office

515 S. Flower Street, 25th Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90071

New York Office

75 East 55th Street, 1st Floor, New York, NY 10022

Paris Office

30, av enue de Messine, Paris, 75008 France

Tokyo Office

Ark Mori Building, 34th Floor, Tokyo, 107-6034 Japan

TYPE OF BUSINESS: 950+ attorneys, full-service international firm

with 17 offices, including Brussels, Paris, London, Milan, Hong Kong,

Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. Substantial practice in

domestic/international franchising and distribution; complex litigation

and alternative dispute resolution; trademark and intellectual property;

antitrust and trade regulation; immigration; international trade; real

estate; employment; securities; venture capital and finance. Business

established in 1951.


(734) 665-4441

(734) 665-8788 FAX

24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105



CONTACT: Paul Fransway, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal Services for Franchisors.


(303) 291-2300

(303) 291-2400 FAX

1899 Wynkoop, Suite 700, Denver, CO 80202-1083



CONTACT: Kim I. McCullough, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Perkins Coie LLP serves great companies with more

than 600 lawyers in 14 offices across the United States and in China.

Established in 1912, the firm represents clients that range in size from

FORTUNE 100 companies to start-ups, and has historically represented

market Best Attorney in College Station leaders in traditional and cutting-edge technology industries.

From developing to established franchisors, the firm's Franchise

& Distribution Group represents clients in the areas of franchising,

licensing and distribution law. Our in-depth, personal approach

encompasses a thorough understanding of our clients' businesses so

that we can offer the best full service solutions to grow and protect

their domestic and international businesses.


(813) 472-7550

(813) 472-7570 FAX

100 South Ashley Drive, Suite 1900, Tampa, FL 33602-5311



CONTACT: Scott P. Weber, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Phelps Dunbar is a full-service regional law firm

of over 260 attorneys, with offices in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA;

Jackson, Tupelo and Gulfport, MS; Houston, TX; Tampa, FL; and London,

England. Our franchise attorneys represent start-up and estab lished

franchisors and franchisees, both domestic and international, on a wide

range of franchise law matters. We assist franchisors with matters such

as regulatory compliance, relationship law related issues, general

franchise law education, and the growth and expansion of their

businesses domestically and internationally. We assist franchisees with

such issues as the negotiation of single and multiunit purchases and

franchise relationship issues. In addition to franchise-specific

assistance, our attorneys provide other services relating to owning and

operating a business. Such counseling includes assistance with general

corporate matters, leasing, construction, real estate, intellectual

property, tax planning, probate, labor and employment, financing, health

care, technology and litigation.


(716) 847-5410

(716) 847-84 00

(716) 852-6100 FAX

3400 HSBC Center, Buffalo, NY 14203



CONTACT: Tom Bailey, Franchise Practice Coordinator; Edward S.

Bloomberg, Partner--Litigation

New York Office

437 Madison Avenue, 34th Floor, New York, NY 10022

Rochester Office

1400 First Federal Plaza, Rochester, NY 14614

Jamestown Office

8 East Third Street, #307, Jamestown, NY 14702

Garden City Office

1100 Franklin Avenue, 4th Flr., Garden City, NY 11530

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Phillips Lytle LLP has 170+ lawyers in offices

throughout New York State helping franchisors with dispute resolution,

trademark and patents, employment, merger and acquisitions and all

aspects of disclosure requirement s.


(914) 681-0100

(914) 206-6003 FAX

10 Bank Street, Suite 540, White Plains, NY 10606

Email: pitegoff@


CONTACT: Tom Pitegoff, Attorney; Richard Corrao, Paralegal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We help grow businesses through franchising. We

draft contracts that achieve business goals, we assess risks in a

real-world context, and we create strategies that work.


(703) 774-1200

(703) 774-1201 FAX

11250 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 5, Reston, VA 20190



CONTACT: John M. Tifford, Partner; Lee J. Plave, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm primarily representing franchisors and

parties before the FTC.


(215) 495-6500

(215) 495-6600 FAX

2929 Arch Street, Cira Centre, 13th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104



CONTACT: Daniel L. Fiore, Attorney



(303) 297-2600

(303) 297-2750 FAX

1099 18th Street, Suite 2600, Denver, CO 80202-1908



CONTACT: Douglas R. Ferguson, Shareholder; Harold R. Bruno, III,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: RWO is a full-service law firm established in

Denver in 1976. The franchise practice group is experienced in all

aspects of franchise, distribution a nd licensing law including domestic

and international regulatory compliance, transactional, litigation and



(212) 644-6644

(212) 644-3344 FAX

110 East 59th Street, 23rd Floor, New York, NY 10022



CONTACT: Richard L. Rosen



(516) 745-0099

(516) 745-0293 FAX

1425 RexCorp Plaza, 14th Fl., West Tower, Uniondale, NY 11556



CONTACT: Harold L. Kestenbanm, Counsel



(800) 458-5973

(206) 583-03 59 FAX

1201 Third Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101-3034



CONTACT: Kevin J. Collette, Chair: Technology & Intellectual

Prop. Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We understand franchising. Full service business

law firm with a team approach for franchising-registration, disclosures,

advertising, internet, trademarks, licensing, corporate, real estate,

technology, litigation, arbitration and ADR techniques. Established in



(212) 689-0400

(212) 689-3315 FAX

404 Park Avenue South, 16th Floor, New York, NY 10016


CONTACT: Bruce S. Schaeffer, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Attorney specializing in finance, accounting and

tax aspects of franchisin g. Established in 1975. Author, BNA Tax

Management Portfolio on Franchising. Member IFA Finance Accounting &

Tax Committee, 1987-1990. Member IFA Legal/Legislative Committee.


(312) 258-5500

(312) 258-5600 FAX

6600 Sears Tower, 233 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606



CONTACT: Paula J. Morency, Partner



(281) 807-0288

(281) 477-9085 FAX

12300 Dundee Court, Suite 203, Cypress, TX 77429



CONTACT: Gail Schubot, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Business law practice with emphasis in

franchisin g, licensing, and distribution law including transactional,

regulatory and litigation work.


(312) 346-1300

(312) 782-8416 FAX

180 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2700, Chicago, IL 60601



CONTACT: Carmen D. Caruso, Principal; Robert A. Smoller, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Schwartz Cooper has extensive experience in

challenging franchise litigation. We are a mid-size firm committed to

providing responsive, cost-effective legal representation of the highest

quality. We are large enough to provide the necessary specialization,

yet small enough that our relationships with our clients matter. The

firm has expertise and provides legal representation in connection with

structuring franchise and distribution s ystems, protection of

intellectual property, preparing the franchise offering circular

including franchise agreement, state registrations, renewals and ongoing

compliance, litigation and dispute resolution and general day-to-day

relational issues. In addition, we provide legal services in other areas

including real estate, securities and general corporate and business

law. Our clients are extremely diverse both in terms of size and



(404) 885-1500

(404) 892-7056 FAX

1545 Peachtree Street NE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30309-2401


CONTACT: Brian Gannon, Counsel

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established 1945.


(813) 258-1099

(813) 258-1040 FAX

215 West Verne St reet, Suite A, Tampa, FL 33606


CONTACT: Dennis Leone, Partner



(213) 620-1780

(213) 620-1398 FAX

333 South Hope Street, 48th Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90071



CONTACT: Christopher S. Reeder, Partner; Gabriel Green, Associate



(860) 251-5000

(860) 251-5219 FAX

One Constitution Plaza, Hartford, CT 06103-1919


CONTACT: Allan P. Hillman, Partner; Paul D. Sanson, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established 1919.


(800) 444-6659

(419) 321-1340

(419) 241-9000

(419) 241-6894 FAX

1000 Jackson, North Courthouse Square, Toledo, OH 43604-5573



CONTACT: Brian N. McMahon, Partner; Peter R. Silverman, Partner

Tampa Office

101 East Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 2800, Tampa, FL 33602-5151

Charlotte Office

128 South Tryon Street, Suite 1800, Charlotte, NC 28202-1675

Columbus Office

Huntington Center, 41 South High Street, Suite 2210, Columbus, OH


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1925. Shumaker, Loop &

Kendrick, LLP is a full service law firm with approximately 155

attorneys and 4 offices in Toledo, Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, Tampa, Florida,

and Ch arlotte, North Carolina. The firm's franchise practice group

provides comprehensive legal services to companies engaged in domestic

and international franchising and distribution matters, including the

establishment of franchise and distribution programs, litigation,

arbitration and mediation of disputes, regulatory compliance, franchise

negotiations, development of franchise locations, acquisitions and

divestitures, finance, securities law; and counseling on all phases of

franchise operations.


(303) 634-2000

(303) 634-2020 FAX

1200 Seventeenth Street, Suite 1900, Denver, CO 80202-5854


CONTACT: Kevin Hein; Andrew Pidcock

Phoenix Office

One Arizona Center, Phoenix, AZ 85004

Salt Lake City Office

15 West South Temple, Suite 1200, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1531

Las Vegas Office

3800 Howard Hughes Pkwy., Suite 1000, Las Vegas, NV 89109

Irvine Office

1920 Main Street, Suite 1200, Irvine, CA 92614-7230

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Snell & Wilmer's Franchising and

Licensing attorneys provide legal services to a wide variety of

concepts. They have experience assisting clients through every stage of

the franchising process, at either the local, regional or international



(312) 876-8000

(312) 876-7934 FAX

8000 Sears Tower, Chicago, IL 60606


CONTACT: Alan H. Silberman; John Baer; Robert Joseph (Chicago);

Curtis Woods (Kansas City); Rochelle Spandorf (L.A.);

James Goniea (San Francisco); S. Rov ak (St. Louis)

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP, a

full-service law firm with 600 lawyers in nine U.S. offices, is involved

in all aspects of distribution, licensing and franchising, counseling

and litigation on a variety of antitrust, franchise and dealer law,

marketing, franchisee relations and supplier arrangement questions. Mr.

Joseph currently serves as Chair of the American Bar Association Antitrust Section, a post Mr. Silberman also has held. Ms. Spandorf is a

former Chair of the ABA Forum on Franchising (1995-97) and Mr. Baer

formerly served as Editor-in-Chief of the ABA Forum's The Franchise

Lawyer and was part of the Forum's leadership.


(416) 977-0007

(416) 977-0717 FAX

180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1250, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8 Canada


Intern et:

CONTACT: John Sotos, Partner;

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Sotos LLP specializes in international and

domestic franchise and distribution law including disclosure and all

aspects of litigation, franchise mediation, arbitration, intellectual

property issues and international expansion.


(800) 535-3425

(609) 895-7348

(609) 895-7395 Attorney College Station FAX

993 Lenox Drive, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648



CONTACT: Rachel Stark, Chair of Franchise Group; Adam Siegelheim

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Stark & Stark helps franchise clients in

formation, expansion, and divestiture, as well as to protect and license

trademarks, ser vice marks, and trade secrets.


(314) 863-0800

168 N. Meramec Avenue, Suite 400, St. Louis, MO 63105



CONTACT: Nicole S. Zellweger, Associate

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Structuring franchise, distribution, and

dealership programs; preparing legal documentation for franchise,

business opportunity, distribution and dealer programs, and counselling

franchisors and franchisees.


(214) 651-4300

(214) 651-4330 FAX

901 Main Street, Suite 4300, Dallas, TX 75202-3724



CONTACT: Earsa Jackson, Franchise Leader; Buddy Ferguson, Partner

Austin Offi ce

600 Congress Avenue, #1600, Austin, TX 78701

Frisco Office

2801 Network Boulevard, #600, Frisco, TX 75034

Houston Office

1401 McKinney Street, #2200, Houston, TX 77010

San Antonio Office

300 Convent Street, #900, San Antonio, TX 78205

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Strasburger's Franchise & Distribution

Law Group provides comprehensive representation of businesses using

franchising, licensing, dealership or direct selling arrangements for

the distribution of goods and services in the U.S., Mexico, and Latin

America, including counseling, litigation, arbitration, and

transactional work involving franchise, dealership, antitrust, supply

chain, intellectual property, employment, and corporate issues.


(973) 491-9500

(973) 491-9692 FAX

Two Penn Plaza East, Newark, NJ 07105-2293



CONTACT: Martin G. Gilbert, Esq., Partner; Judith Carberry,


New York Office

2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service firm providing comprehensive

franchising legal services in the New Jersey/New York area, established

in 1898.


(937) 443-6600

(937) 443-6635 FAX

2000 Courthouse Plaza NE, 10 West Second Street, Dayton, OH




CONTACT: Barry M. Block, Partner; Thomas J. Collin, Partner &

Practice Group Leader

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1911, Thompson Hine L LP is a full

service business law firm with more than 360 lawyers in Cleveland,

Cincinnati, Columbus, and Dayton, Ohio, Washington, D.C., New York,

Atlanta and Brussels, Belgium. The firm has an extensive practice

counseling franchisors and franchisees and litigating franchise and

distribution matters.


(800) 255-8752

(404) 885-3000

(404) 885-3900 FAX

600 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 5200, Atlanta, GA 30308-2216



CONTACT: Mark S. VanderBroek, Partner; Kenneth Ozment, Attorney

Richmond Office

1111 E. Main Street,, Richmond, VA 23218

Washington, D.C. Office

401 9th Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004

New York Offic e

The Chrysler Building, 405 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10174

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm of over 600 lawyers,

experienced in franchise law including developing franchise programs,

regulatory compliance, and franchise litigation and dispute resolution.



92427323501 FAX

West End Building 61 The Mall, Lahore 54000 Pakistan



CONTACT: M. Farrukh Irfan Khan, Attorney at Law

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Intellectual Property Registration, Licensing and

Enforcement Services.


(214) 751-2000

(214) 751-2002 FAX

4242 Renaissance Tower, 1201 Elm Street, Dallas,

TX 75270


CONTACT: John Vernon, Partner; Mary Goodrich, Partner



(614) 464-6400

(614) 464-6430

(614) 464-6350 FAX

52 East Gay Street, P.O. Box 1008, Columbus, OH 43216-1008



CONTACT: Herbert A. Hedden, Esq., Partner; Stephen R. Bucheuroth,

Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service law firm with offices in Columbus,

Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron, Ohio, Washington, D.C. and Alexandria,

Virginia. The firm has an extensive franchise law practice representing

franchisors, franchisees and franchisee associations.


(203) 498-4400

(203) 782-2889 FAX

One Century Tower, New Haven, CT 06508-1832


CONTACT: Edward Wood Dunham, Chair, Franchise & Distribution

Practice Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The law firm of Wiggin & Dana represents

national, regional and start-up franchisors and distributors in numerous

industries. The firm regularly assists these clients in regulatory,

transactional and litigation matters. The firm's Franchise and

Distribution Practice Group is national litigation counsel for Subway

and MAACO, and also represents other well-known franchise systems.


(202) 719-7000

(202) 719-7049 FAX

1776 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Peter Klarfeld/Bob Smith, Partners; Jim Rubinger, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The Franchise Group at this full-service firm is

second to none in terms of its breadth, depth and experience. The Group

is involved in all aspects of domestic and international franchising, as

well as licensing and distribution. Wiley, Rein & Fielding LLP also

has a broad national regulatory and commercial practice covering all

pertinent areas.


(804) 783-6418

(804) 783-6507 FAX

P.O. Box 1320, Richmond, VA 23218-1320



CONTACT: Sandy T. Tucker, Shareholder

Washington, DC Office

(202) 293-5939 FAX

1666 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006

CONTACT: Warren Lewis

McLean Office

8270 Greensboro Drive, #700, McLean, VA 22102

Detroit Office

11th Flr, Buhl Bldg, 535 Griswold Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226

London Office

2 Old Garden House, The Lanterns, Bridge Lane,

London SW11 3AD United Kingdom

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm offering expertise to franchisors and

franchisees in domestic and international franchising and distribution,

compliance with disclosure and relationship laws, franchise litigation

and transactional matters. In business since 1909.


44 121 233 1000

44 121 214 1099 FAX

55 Colmore Row, Birmingham B3 2AS United Kingdom



CONTACT: Michael Luckman, Partner; Vicky Wilkes



(305) 374-5418

(305) 374-5428 FAX

100 SE 2nd Street, Suite 2700, Miami, FL 33131-2100



CONTACT: Robert F. Salkowski, Partner; Robert Zarco, President